Saturday, May 23, 2020

Essay on Macbeth’s Deteriorating Mental State - 1636 Words

William Shakespeare’s Macbeth is a tragedy in which the main characters are obsessed by the desire for power. Macbeth’s aspiration for power blinds him to the ethical implications of his dreadful acts. The more that Shakespeare’s Macbeth represses his murderous feelings, the more he is haunted by them. By analyzing his hallucinations it is possible to trace his deteriorating mental state and the trajectory of his ultimate fall. Throughout the play Macbeth is never satisfied with himself. He feels the need to keep committing crime in order to keep what he wants most: his kingship. The harder Macbeth tries to change his fate the more he tends to run into his fate. His ambition and struggle for power was Macbeth’s tragic flaw in the play.†¦show more content†¦It is known that, the King is God chosen, and Macbeth was not the chosen one to be king. Macbeth’s ambition dominated the great chain of being, so that he could get what he wanted. When Macbeth sinfully disrupted the great chain of being, nature’s natural flow was also disturbed. One can argue that all of the mischief in the play is caused my Lady Macbeth. The person who is the most influential is Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth feels she is too feminine to assist in the murder of the king, but feels that deep inside she is manlier than her husband. So, she tries to put her femininity aside when she says, â€Å"Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, And fill me from the crown to the toe top-full Of direst cruelty!† (1.5.40-43) Lady Macbeth is the one who instigates most of the mischief in the play. Near the start of the play, we know that Lady Macbeth wants to be queen, and it is evident that her ambition for her husband to become queen is the reason she persuaded her husband to commit all of the terrible crimes. It is obvious that Lady Macbeth is going to manipulate Macbeth when she says, â€Å"That I may pour my spirits in thine ear†. (1.5.26) Lady Macbeth baits Macbeth to kill the king. She questions his manhood, and calls him a coward. Lady Macbeth tries to make Macbeth feel guilty by saying, â€Å"I have given suck, and know How tender tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in myShow MoreRelatedRelative Influences on Macbeth to Kill his King in Shakespeares Macbeth1505 Words   |  7 Pagesthat influenced Macbeths decision whether to assassinate King Duncan or not. Each of these arguments worked for or against Macbeths better judgement of the situation. Eventually, a combination of all these factors broke down his conscience through his mental weakness; this led to an unwise decision to kill the King. The consequences of this were fairly disastrous because Macbeth began to regret his actions just moments after the deed was done. The whole concept of Macbeths desire to becomeRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth And Lady Macbeth Essay1619 Words   |  7 PagesFew couples in theatre can match the incessantly devoted yet poisonous marriage Macbeth and his wife share. Lady Macbeth and Macbeth’s combined ruthlessness allows them to climb to the top but also leads them to their deaths. Shakespeare creates a vision of Scotland where reality and dreams, the natural and supernatural, and the masculine and feminine constantly ebb into each other. Macbeth possesses remnants of the Renaissance’s interest in humanism and psychological exploration, leading to someRead MoreThe Downfall of Macbeth Essay1239 Words   |  5 Pages With his wifes cajoling and the three witches foretelling of his future, Macbeth, will stop at nothing to gain the position as King of Scotland. The witches and their prophecies are the first major influence which trigger Macbeths actions. Macbeth, Thane of Glamis is content with his life, until the three witches tell him, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor, thou shalt be King hereafter. (I, iii.). After hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his loyal friend, find outRead MoreShakespeares Macbeth and Dr. Faustus Bargain 788 Words   |  3 Pages During Macbeths never-ending ambitious strive for power in Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, he makes his own Faustian Bargain similar to Dr. Faustus. The theme of ambition dominates both their stories. Even though he does not directly deal with the devil as Faustus does, the consequence of his bargain is greater. Not only does he loose his life, but his wife and everything he had risked for. The witches tempt Macbeth with their words of prophecy and fate. By listening and acting upon thoseRead MoreLady Macbeth1937 Words   |  8 PagesWilliam Shakespeare. The play is a tragedy, believed to have been written in 1611-12. The play is about a man named Macbeth whom, at first is a kind, tender man who later gets tempted by three foul witches to commit a murder in order to become king. Macbeth’s wife, Lady Macbeth is thrilled by the prophecies given by the witches and is eager for Macbeth to commit the murder. Macbeth disagrees with his wife greatly about the murder, and later into the play we see how the two exchange views about life andRead MoreSympathy for Macbeth in William Shakespeares Macbeth Essay1833 Words   |  8 Pagesis about to become Thane of Cawdor. The third prophecy is the one the makes Macbeth wonder, even more so, as moments later he finds out that he is Thane of Cawdor, as two of the three things that the witches said are true. This makes Macbeths mind wander how on earth he is destined to become king? At first his mind turns to evil thoughts, why do I yield to that suggestion Whose horrid image doth unfix my hairà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦My thought, whose murder is yet but fantastical. His firstRead MoreLady Macbeth By William Shakespeare2143 Words   |  9 PagesHowever, throughout the play she declines and becomes hysterical. Her status among critics varies; but, all agree that Lady Macbeth’s role is vital to this timeless drama. The intricate relationship of Lady Macbeth and her husband is continuously studied and critiqued. There are numerous opinions on their partnership, some of which say that Lady Macbeth is the villain and others state that she is the heroine. Lady Macbeth is popular because of her ambition, power, and influence; her deterioration from

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Fieldwork in Various Anthropological Schools of Thought Essay

Cultural anthropology is a social science that studies the origins and development of human societies (History World International, 2001). Many theories to explain cultural variations among humans have emerged. As a result, numerous anthropological schools of thought have been established based on these theories since the nineteenth century. These schools of thought encompass the dominant beliefs about culture during a time period and are constantly changing as new knowledge is acquired. As schools of thought develop, ethnographic methods have changed and developed as well. Fieldwork is an ethnographic method that has been implemented in all anthropological schools of thought. It involves gathering data and information about a specific†¦show more content†¦On the other hand, scholars, like Lewis Henry Morgan, did their own fieldwork to study and understand societies. However, scientific methods for collecting data were not developed until decades later. As a result, Morganâ €™s studies have been criticized for being too vast and superficial, as well as having fundamental errors in the interpretation of the data (Tooker, 1992). Ethnographic methods during this time were basic at best and were of little concern to the cultural evolutionists. Franz Boas was one of the first anthropologists to reject the theories of the cultural evolutionists in the beginning of the twentieth century (History World International, 2001). Although he recognized the role of evolution in ancestry, he found the theories of the cultural evolutionists to be scientifically unfounded. Instead, he pioneered historical particularism, the first American-born anthropological school. This school emphasized the individuality of a society and, therefore, to examine it one must look at the cultures environmental, psychological, and, most importantly, historical circumstances (McGee Warms, 2008). With the creation of a new school and his background in physical science, Boas stressed th e importance of ethnographic fieldwork for the first time. McGee and Warms (2008) state that â€Å"Boas advocated a four-field perspective that included studying prehistory, linguistics, and physicalShow MoreRelatedStatement of Purpose for Havard Application661 Words   |  3 Pages In 1995, I burst into tears in entrance ceremony of primary school in China. I was the only one in school who was not granted a red scarf. As a seven-year-old, I thought it was the red scarf that divided me from others. I badgered the school principal until I was finally allowed to be the first foreign student in school who owned a red scarf, only to find out that wearing a red scarf to school made little difference. Ever since, my identity has roamed somewhere between an insider and an outsiderRead MoreThroughout This Cultural Anthropology Class, One Consistent1451 Words   |  6 Pagesinitiative, the Confucius Institute. During these programs, Chinese teachers came to the United States to educate American students about Chinese culture and language, as paid for by the Chinese state. Hubbert conducted her fieldwork at one such Confucius Institute at a high school in Southern California. These programs provide an insight on definitions of the state, as well as how it is perceived b y both outsiders and insiders. This article should be included in the Cultural Anthropology syllabus becauseRead MoreAn Understanding Of Gender Perception, Gender, And Gender Essay1582 Words   |  7 Pagestheories of gender in our part of the world should address is: What are the socio-cultural sources of power and authority in the region that constitute culture and regulate gender perception, gender role assignment, and gender subversion? Among the various sources of power and authority, seven stand out: history, Islam, multilingualism, orality, social organization, economic status, and political system.† II. METHODS Research Setting This research will be conducted with a non-governmental organizationRead MoreWhat Is Anthropology? How Does Observing With An Anthropological Manner Help Us Understand The World?1548 Words   |  7 Pages What is anthropology? How does observing with an anthropological manner help us understand the world? According to Kenneth Guest, anthropology is: â€Å"The study of the full scope of human diversity, past and present, and the application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds better understand one another† (Guest 7). Anthropology helps one better understand and engage with the world as he or she moves through it. Specifically, cultural anthropology is: â€Å"The study of people s communitiesRead MoreSocial And Cultural Groups Become A Key Tool For Harmony On The Global Stage1601 Words   |  7 Pagesthe global nations are quickly being re-established with determination. It is in this time that the anthropological examinations of various social and cultu ral groups become a key tool for harmony on the global stage. It is through the dissection of data collected through fieldwork that true anthropological understanding other cultures is best achieved. This essay will reflect on the anthropological contributions of two writers who have both touched on the issues of borders and how they affect peopleRead MoreWhat is anthropology and why we should study it?1857 Words   |  8 PagesAnthropologists seek to understand both the cultural and individual bases for behavior; and how political, economic, and social factors affect both the individuals and various groups. Although statistical and other quantitative methods are used, much of Cultural Anthropology is qualitative-descriptive. Classical anthropological fieldwork requires prolonged residence (of one or more years) with a particular group in order to understand their way of life. Until World War II, Cultural Anthropology focusedRead MorePhilosophical Implications of Cultural Relativism4081 Words   |  17 Pagesreadily understandable language, supporting with reasons from other ideas, principles, and observations to establish conclusion and overcome objections. It is to understand the principle of cultural relativism by disintegrating and clarifying its various components like: 1. Research-oriented tool to tackle its opposite attitude of ‘ethnocentrism’. 2. Ethical theory in order to understand other culture in its own perspective. 3. Logical analysis to evaluate the principle for it integrity. 4. CriticalRead MoreCritical Evaluation of Articles by Russel (2005) and Brown Et Al. (2005)] Critical Evaluation of Articles by Russel (2005) and Brown Et Al. (2005)]3636 Words   |  15 PagesNottingham University Business School MSc Programmes [Research Methods for Finance and Investment] [Critical Evaluation of Articles by Russel (2005) and Brown et al. (2005)] [Konstantin Dambaev] Student ID: [4158276] Word count: 3007 (without headings), 3234 (with headings). COPY [1] It’s a question of trust: Balancing the relationship between students and teachers in ethnographic fieldwork Russell, L. 1. The researcher says that â€Å"[i]ntense observationsRead MoreDo Muslim Women Really Need Saving?7400 Words   |  30 PagesDo Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others Author(s): Lila Abu-Lughod Reviewed work(s): Source: American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 104, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 783-790 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association Stable URL: . Accessed: 18/01/2012 15:55 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms Conditions of Use, available atRead MoreMethods of Qualitative of Data Collection19658 Words   |  79 Pages13, 1997 Observation 12:40 p.m. Observer’s comments There are 17 children in the room. There are 3 adults: 1 teacher, 1 classroom assistant, and 1 student teacher (the student teacher is an older woman). The room is in the basement of the school. The school is a brick building approximately 90 to 100 years old. The room is about 40 feet by 30 feet. The room is carpeted and is sectioned off by furniture. There is an area with big books and a chart in the left-hand back corner of the room. Next to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Contract Acceptance and Offer Free Essays

Q1. Understanding the concept of contract is the important thing in answering this question. † A contract may be defined as an agreement between two or more parties that is intended to be legally binding†. We will write a custom essay sample on Contract Acceptance and Offer or any similar topic only for you Order Now This answer will highlight the main points to see the differences between an offer and an invitation to treat. † An offer may be defined as a statement of willingness to contract on specified terms made with the intention that, if accepted there will arise a binding contract†. On the other side, invitation to treat invites the other people to make an offer which can be accepted or rejected by the other party. To illustrate them we have to look in certain areas. First area is the display of goods where these are seen as an invitation to treat because shops are inviting people to make them an offer which can be accepted or rejected by the shopkeeper. Cases to supports this are Fisher v Bell and Pharmaceutical Society v Boots Chemists. Another area in which the sales of goods are treated as an invitation to treat is advertisement as seen in Partridge v Crittenden. However we have an exception. Case to support this is Carlill v Carbolic where a reward was attached to the advert. This case is treated as an offer because it can be accepted without any future negotiations. Another example where the term of offer is not good valuated we can find in sales of land area. Case to support this is Harvey v Facey where the court decided that between them was not a contract just a confusion regarding to the answer to enquiries, so was not an offer and not an invitation to treat. The last two areas where the court may presume that certain acts are invitation to treat is invitation to tender and auction sales. Cases which support the fact that invitation to tender is an invitation to treat are Spencer v Harding and Harvela Investments v Royal Trust. First case is illustrating that even you use the word offering in the context it doesn’t mean that is an offer. Second case highlights that the highest tender is going to be accepted . In the auction cases supported by Payne v Cave we can see that we can withdrew the highest bid before the acceptance of the auctioneer because at that point is no contract. Q2. According to contract law an â€Å"acceptance is a final and unqualified acceptance of the terms of an offer†. The concept of acceptance can be interpreted in more ways so we’ve got some rules. One of the rules highlights the fact that the acceptance has to match the offer. The person for who was addressed the offer has to accept all the terms of the offer. They can’t introduce new terms because this will be seen as a counter offer. Case to support this is Percy v Archital. A request for information about an offer it can’t be taken in consideration as a counter offer. Case to support this is Stevenson v McLean where the defendant by answering to some enquires was not doing a counter offer. Another important rule is when we have two parties with different standard terms. Case to support this is Butler Machine v Excell-o-Corp where is illustrated the fact that when an offer is made on a document with standard terms and the acceptance is coming on a document with another terms and we still delivery the item, means that we accept the second party terms. An acceptance is taking to consideration only if is communicated. Case to support this is Felthouse v Bindley where the claimant considered the silence of his nephew as an acceptance. To accept an offer we can follow the methods of acceptance when instantaneous methods of communication are used. In this case the contract takes place when and where the acceptance is received as seen in Entores v Miles Far case. If this is received out of normal office hours then acceptance will be valid from the start of the next working day. Case to support this is Brinkibon v Stahag. The only exception of the rule that acceptance must be communicated is the postal rule. This takes place only when is requested or when is an appropriate and reasonable way of communication between the parties. In this case the acceptance takes place when the letter of acceptance was posted not when was received as seen in Adam v Lindsell case. In case that the letter was sent but it has never arrived is still a valid acceptance. Case to support this is Household Insurance v Grant. Although is an exception of the rule, postal rule will not apply when the letter of acceptance was handed to intermediaries (London and Northern Bank), when the letter is not properly addressed, when the offeror specified that the acceptance must reach to him (Holwell Securities v Hughes) and when is unreasonable to use the post. Q3. Consideration is important element in the formation of a contract. It is usually described as being â€Å"something which represents a benefit for the person who is making a promise or a detriment for the person to whom the promise is made or both† . Case to support this is Currie v Misa. Related to the consideration are certain rules which we have to follow. First rule is that consideration must not be past as seen in Re McArdle case where the court supports the representative of the owner because the occupiers didn’t provide a good consideration. However we have some exception, case of Lampleigh v Braithwaite where the court decided that it can be a past consideration because the promise of payment came after the performance, so consideration was precede by a request which result a valid consideration. Another rule of the consideration is that it must move from the promise. This is seen in Tweddle v Atkinson case where the court decide that third parties can’t provide the consideration, hence is not having any rights from the agreement. An exception to this rule is Contract(Rights of Third Parties) Act 1990 which allows the third party to sue in case that the name it can be identified in the original contract. Case called Thomas v Thomas is one of the cases who is coming to support the rule where the consideration needs to be sufficient but not necessarily economically adequate . Court decided that in this case the rent of one pound which the widow was paying it was a sufficient consideration which is enough to form a contract. The following rule, performance of an existing public duty is not consideration, is seen in Collins v Godefroy case and wants to highlight the fact that if the people have a duty imposed by law to turn up, they have to do it without any promise of remuneration from the client because this is not consideration. However, we’ve got an exception Glasbrook v Glamorgan case where the statutory duty of the police was not sufficient consideration; they had gone beyond their existing duty. â€Å"Performance of an existing contractual duty is not consideration† it can be seen from different points of view. In the first case, Stilk v Myrick the fact that 2 mean deserted is not a good consideration in order to change the contract. However the case called Hartley v Ponsonby is different because 19 people deserted, which is more than half of the total sailors, hence a valid consideration, so the offer of Ponsonby and the acceptance of the crew can be considered a new contract. The next case, Williams v Roffey Brothers is coming with a different point of view because the benefit of not paying the penalty is seen as a consideration. The following case which I will present is about part payment of a debt. Case to support this is Pinnel v Cole where court decided that the payment of a small amount of money from the whole is not a satisfaction for the money lender, therefore the agreement to receive some money at the due date was not a contract because was no consideration. However we’ve got the case of Hirachand v Temple as an exception because the existing duty to make a payment was owned by a third party, hence was a good consideration. The last part is about the equitable rule of promissory estoppel which â€Å"allows a contract to be enforced even through there is no consideration† as seen in Hughes v Metropolitan Railway case where the tenant was following what he promise but the landlord was enforcing his rights. This case was revised later in London Property v High Trees. Based on the facts that there is a promise that existing legal rights will not be enforced, there is an existing contract and the injured party relied on that promise, Lord Denning stated that the â€Å"Landlord was â€Å"estopped† from going back on his promise†. How to cite Contract Acceptance and Offer, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Learning to Appreciate Reading and Writing Essay Example For Students

Learning to Appreciate Reading and Writing Essay I don’t think of myself as much as a reader or writer. Reading was hard for me early on in life, but I grew out of it and learned to deal with it. I didn’t grow out of writing, not the actual getting ideas out, but me actually writing. I have broken my hand and arms 5 times, that is what made it a struggle for me. So you could say I don’t have a problem with reading so much now, but writing is still the same. No matter how I feel about either doesn’t change me having to actually do them. Early on in life I was discouraged about reading. In the first grade I was held back for my reading. I didn’t read as well as everyone else did. I was the only one in class who had to take the same grade twice, and that was a big deal for me. Back then I thought I was stupid for it and that everyone would look at me different. I didn’t want to be the dumb one or the idiot of the class. As that year went on and I started to get the gist of things, I knew that it was a good thing for me. By the end of the year, I was reading better and I felt a lot better. I started to take home books and read them on my own. The only place I read before was school, I wasn’t challenged at home by my mom to read or do any kind of school work. It was up to me to learn and take matters into my own hands. If I wanted to learn or do anything for school I had to do it myself at home or at school. I don’t recall a time when I was made to sit down and do my homework like normal kids. Since I didn’t have help or made to do anything at home, I didn’t work on my writing much. So from the start my writing was bad, I never had practice with it. If you don’t practice at anything you’re not going to be good at it. I could never read my own writing. It was always sloppy, and I write really fast. I could come up with good ideas to write but by the time I wrote it down, I couldn’t read what I’ve said or I would forget. I would have to write something multiple times just so you can read it. My teachers would ask me what I wrote, and I couldn’t even tell them. By the end of my fifth grade year I had a really good reading level. I think it was on six grade level. That was a big accomplish for me, from getting held back for my reading to being above my reading grade. I knew getting held back helped, even though I was a grade behind. That was the worst part about it, being back in the same grade. Once I got to middle school I was always the oldest in my grade. When people ask why, I was kind of embarrassed to say. I would lie and make up an excuse. It was something I never really told why until about high school. By the time I got to high school it wasn’t that big of a deal and I wasn’t the only one that got held back. The best teachers I have ever had was in middle school and they were my reading teachers. All three years they were the teachers I always wanted to see. My eighth grade teacher was the biggest one to impact me. She actually got me to like reading the most. I guess it was just how she taught, and she always made us read books that I liked personally, like Twisted by Laurie Anderson and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie, the two first books I actually enjoyed reading. I would say they helped me to started enjoying reading. By the end of eighth grade I was finally on the level of reading I liked and was in a reading class foe advanced readers. .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .postImageUrl , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:hover , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:visited , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:active { border:0!important; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:active , .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3ab75e02d4d98ec78abfd499a2ce4e1f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Sonnet 18 EssayIn middle school my handwriting was at an all-time low. I broke my arm for the first time in six grade and it was my left hand, the hand I write with. Every year I was in a cast for something. So on top of my writing already being bad I had a cast on. For the whole seventh grade, I got a computer to type everything on because of my arm being broke. Eight grade I didn’t get to use the computer which sucked but my writing still sucked but it become known. You actually didn’t have a reading class in high school, so I honestly didn’t read a book on my own, unless I had too. So I think that’s when I stopped reading a lot and letting it be. I didn’t mind to read in class when I had to, but as far as me going to the library and getting a book that never happened. That’s how I am now, I don’t mind to read, but I don’t push myself too. I am content on where I’m at with it, but now that I’m in college I need to start reading. High school came around and my writing actually got better. I didn’t break anything since middle so that wasn’t a problem. I had a teacher to actually help me on it and slowed me down. My writing then is how about where it is now. It’s not the best but it’s eligible. Now I could actually get what I was thinking on paper. Now that I am college I’m going to start to like both. It sucks but no matter what I’m going to have to do it, so why not begin to like it. I like to learn and want to learn as much as I can, so actually picking up and a book is going to be what I have to do. I still don’t think of myself as a reader or writer, but I will by the end of college. Now that I’ve been through the struggle of it all, now is the time to do the best I can do, and you won’t get anywhere without both.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Running Head Youth Gangs an Example of the Topic Government and Law Essays by

Running Head: Youth Gangs Howell's article mentioned that the definition of a youth gang varies from every state. They are considered a group of young delinquents assumed to have associated themselves with a gang name. This would correspond to a certain set of characteristics and symbolism usually exclusive to their group. The size of these groups also varies from every location. Need essay sample on "Running Head: Youth Gangs" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed According to a survey, adolescents join gangs at the rate of 14-30%. Their ages range from 12-24, and their membership continues to expand since 1980, same with the gang problems reported to the authorities. Howell established in his article that a great portion of the country experiences delinquency from these gangs. The article also mentioned that gangs were not exclusive to men. There are some female members reported as well. Undergraduates Often Tell Us: I'm don't want to write my essay online. I want to spend time with my friends Entrust Your Essay Paper To Us And Get A+ Online Essay Writing Company Best Essay Writing Service Buy College Papers Online Cheap Essay Writing Service A large portion of the crimes reported were by the many youth gangs. This was given the rate of 3 is to 1 of the crimes committed by non gang related crimes in Denver. In Rochester, it is 7 to 1. Their influences are definitely greater than non gang members, and the effects can stretch for a very long term. Offense rates significantly drop when the gang leaves the area. That is also because gangs are usually involved with drug and alcohol use. Violence seemed inevitable. On the other hand, there is no relation between gangs and drug trafficking and homicides. Another study also showed that the growth of gangs have nothing to do with gang migration. It was found out that although there was an increase in theft and robbery when gangs migrate, the changes were not drastic in some regions. The composition of these gangs usually consist of Italians, Irish and Jewish. However, according to a national survey, almost half of the gangs comprises of blacks at 48%. Others are Hispanic, at 43%. Whites covered 5%, while 4% were established to be Asians. On the other hand, where students are involved, white adolescents are of a larger scale. Those black students who admitted they were gang members were 31% of the sample. Hispanic and the Whites got 25% each, and 5% were Asian. Youth gang is a fact in any society. Seemed as secret congregations, these gangs have brought fear and paranoia in many people. They have become a threat in and society. However, these percentages and studies only highlighted gang involvement by race. These digits can lead one to assume that blacks will most likely involve themselves with gangs and Asians are mostly composed of good people. This form of stereotyping should never be accepted in any society. In fact it should be discouraged. Although the article presented significant data, it somehow failed to establish the causes of these delinquent activities. How did they become a threat? They have been rated to all the crimes, compared with other transgressions in society, but the author did not include its source. If youth gangs are approached as an illness in society, then articles such as this should also supply means to counter the predicament. It should have provided suggestions. Although its aim was suppose to render information to a public, there should an underlying purpose and an avenue to attain that. Delinquency should not have been equated to race. The significant difference among colors should not matter as much. The crime rates by youth gangs should be lowered to none. The youth should not be involved. They should be able to enjoy their childhood without hate or anger. If rates are greater due to youth gangs then action should be done at the most immediate time. We should not have waited to have these statistics show us how grave the problem already is. However, now that these numbers are here, a move should be initiated. Reference Howell, J. (December 2007). "Youth gangs." Retrieved March 5, 2008 from .

Friday, March 6, 2020

English Anthology Course Work Essay Example

English Anthology Course Work Essay Example English Anthology Course Work Essay English Anthology Course Work Essay Show how the pots create a strong sense of place in Island man and another poem form the culture section from you anthology. In my opinion Grace Nichols creates a particularly strong sense of place in island man using a wide range of techniques, which span from imagery to alliteration. Above the first stanza theirs a short caption that I think sets the mood for the poem beneath, I believe it to be a successful attempt to geode the reader into Grace Nicholes desired direction it says For a Caribbean island man in London who still wakes up to the sound of the sea the reason for inserting this caption I think is to set a vivid comparison between the two stated locations Caribbean Island and London therefore whats interpreted to be a tropical paradise is being compared with the commonly accepted bland grey London city which in turn creates an extremely strong sense of place and surroundings before the poem even starts. The last piece of decryption before the poem is describing the Caribbean island, and the first word of the poem is morning after reading the caption nine times out of ten I think the reader will still be picturing the island and the reality of discovering the man was dreaming and hes infect in London becomes ever more apparent, the where about of the protagonist is no longer questionable a sense of place has been firmly been established. The reader is now aware that the man was dreaming about the island and can sympathise with him taking the dull north circular journey he has to take into consideration. The poet plays around with the reader slightly I think and regularly snaps in and out of this fictional reality despite the fact the man is now awake, the way in which the poem is organised adds to this effectively, Grace Nicholes knows where the man would rather be and which location we the reader would rather read about so I think she deliberately sets the poem out to dash our hopes in again being on what we thought was a Caribbean island, the poem reads: Morning and the island man wakes up to the sound of blue surf The reader thinks they are going back to the island in his head in doing this we are 100% certain of our where abouts we are in a place where any thing can happen, this adds to the excitement factor of the poem dramatically because we no longer know what to expect. where in a place where we and the man would rather not be dreaming/fantasising about an idealistic paradise island Like in the beginning of the poem Grace Nicholes uses simple decryption to add to the overall atmosphere of the island in doing so intensifying the readers perception of the Caribbean island, simple decryption like Morning and Wild Sea Birds are inference tactics, they make the reader think of other words/phrases which would directly be associated with a Caribbean island an example of some of these words would be a tropical horizon or free roaming exotic animals. We are led through all the delights of a natural paradise and then we are dropped back in to the real word with a bold statement. Another London day Imtiaz Dharkers Blessing portrays a very clear idea of place from the very start, the poems name its self I believe to be an obvious indication of are probable where abouts the fact that the poem is called blessing would indicates to me either a hostile unsatisfactory environment or some one thats for some reasons unhappy in order for some sort of blessing to be necessary in the first place. Imtiaz Dharkers uses a very obvious method of inference in order to get the sense of place in his poem across Entitling some thing Blessing = Something going or has gone wrong in the past but its about to be resolved Unlike Grace Nicholes theres no room for varying opinion on some of his key statements there is never enough water can only be viewed in one way not like Another London day which we assume is a bad day but some people may prefer days in London to a Caribbean island. The bold statement there is never enough water would I think make the reader think of a barren environment in which nothing grows and people are living in extreme depravity and hardship due to the lack of water the sense of place therefore is a desert like setting which is indicated with one sweeping statement. The poet Imtiaz Dharkers I think has far more discrete deposition and language technique in comparison to Grace Nichols who lets the reader decided a lot of whats in the poem and where and how much to read in to it Dharker uses youthasisims extensively which shows me that his poem has a set purpose and a end goal which corresponds with his chosen traditional story format lay out.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Contribute to the care of mothers and babies interview Essay

Contribute to the care of mothers and babies interview - Essay Example I was particularly pleasantly surprised to learn that the father I have grown to imagine as tough and busy actually took his time to change my baby diapers in the middle of the nights. I also interviewed a 45 year old lady who has had three girls concerning the changes she has noticed in maternal care over the three different births and those of her sisters and friends. She reckons that each time she visits a maternity center she notices considerable improvements and more personalized health care. A third interview involved a 32 year old woman who shed more light on the various gadgets that she finds helpful in providing care for a new born and parenting. In the fourth interview with a 58 year old woman, we discussed the period of stay in hospital after child birth and some of the general positives and negatives one can contend with in a maternity. In my fifth and final interview, with a 68 year old woman, we looked at and debunked some common myths/ superstitions that are common regarding pregnancy. The roles of a father during and after pregnancy are ever changing with fathers becoming more engaged in the affairs of the expectant mother and the child (Koutoukidis, Stainton, and Hughson, 2013). This is unlike in the past when fathers would take a back seat or revel in the presence of a house help. Research indicates that the active involvement of fathers during and after pregnancy aids in the healthy all-round development of the child, increases bond and aids in the recovery of the mother, with activities such as changing nappies, bathing babies, organizing baby car seats, having contacts of who to call when necessary, preparing a baby area at home, ensuring healthy feeding of (expectant) mother, doing laundry, ensuring home safety, accompanying mother to clinical checkups before and after delivery (Koutoukidis, Stainton, and Hughson, 2013, 66), and so on, vital

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Time Management and Success Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Time Management and Success - Research Paper Example These include setting of goals, planning, delegation, allocation, time analysis, organizing, monitoring, prioritization, and scheduling. In the school setting, time management is extremely crucial for the school to satisfy the organizational goals and objectives. Time management is a tool that determines the project completion and the scope to which a project is done. It helps teachers in satisfying the goals and objectives of the students. When students and teachers on activities that deal with instrumental responsibilities use most of the school time, then, achievement of the student would be influenced positively. In this respect, time management is paramount for the success of any school. This paper explores a report on the impact of time management on the success of a school. Statement of the Problem. The study examined the impacts of time management on the success of a school. In many schools, teachers experience the challenge of accountability and high-stakes testing, that has a massive effect on the success and achievement of the learners. The increased responsibilities towards the profession are one great influence to the time spends on learning activity. School administrators, on the other hand, have the responsibility of policy formulation or a program administration. This means that they have an entitlement to all benefits, rights, and burdens brought about by appropriate management of time. ... School administrators should, therefore, take into consideration the impacts of time management on instructional time for them to satisfy their goals of increasing the achievement of students. Research Questions The following research questions will direct the quantitative section of the study: 1. Is there any there any influence of time management on the success of students? 2. Is there a correlation between the time management skills of the teacher’s and student achievement? The following questions will direct the qualitative section of the study: 1. What are the effects of management of time on the performance of students? 2. How does time management correlates with the performance of the students? Purpose of the Study The key purpose of the research was to give out insight regarding the link between time management skills and student achievement. Through the analysis of the skills of time management skills and the academic performance of the students, as given by studentâ €™s scores on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), Knowledge could be obtained on the relationship between time management skills of a teacher and the success of the student. The study was conducted to examine the relevance of time management on academic performance hence provide an appropriate solution for increasing the performance of learners in schools. Importance of the Study The success of this study is vital because it is will provide a powerful tool of increasing the performance of learners in a school. The study examines whether time management skills play a factor in the success of student. The existence of any correlation between time management and student’s success will give room for

Monday, January 27, 2020

Relaxation Therapy: Intervention Evaluation

Relaxation Therapy: Intervention Evaluation Part Two: Report and Discussion of Therapeutic Intervention Reflection on Feedback from Part 1 The discussion around the implementation of relaxation therapy in the chosen setting was quite detailed, because there were a number of people who raised issues which were important for managing the implementation. The first issue raised was the nature and type of the relaxation, which also related to a discussion of expertise in relation to providing relaxation of this type. Relaxation has been proven to be effective in a number of clinical scenarios (Hyman et al, 1989). However, questions were raised about the exact nature of the relaxations to be used – were these to be progressive muscle relaxations, guided visualisation, or free visualisation (Lehrer et al, 1988)? There are significant differences in the effects of different kinds of approaches to relaxation and visualisation (Galvin et al, 2006; Gerdner, 2000; Sellers, 2005). Questions were also raised about how well the intervention could be evaluated if there were different techniques being used. Therefore, one of the changes that was made was to devise a limited number of relaxation exercises and to only use these within the clinical setting. These were therefore limited to one progressive muscle relaxation exercise, and one guided visualisation, using very neutral imagery. There was no attempt at more complex therapeutic intervention. The issues raised about competence and expertise in providing these relaxation therapies were therefore addressed, and there was not need to seek out extra training or support in specific relaxation therapies. Further feedback identified a need to explore more evidence about relaxation therapies, particularly for this kind of client group, and in health interventions in particular. Therefore, a further search of the literature, extending back further chronologically as well as looking more widely, was carried out, and such literature reviewed as part of the process of evaluation of the intervention. A clear framework, rationale and evidence base for the selected therapeutic intervention Relaxation therapies have found a broad range of uses in healthcare practice. In this client group, there is evidence to suggest that relaxation therapies would be beneficial, simply because they can help the older adult retain cognitive function and memory function (Galvin et al, 2006). Galvin et al (2006) describe the relaxation response in terms of a physiologic response that can counter the bio-chemical responses to anxiety which can affect the cognitive functions of the older adult. In order to achieve this Relaxation Response, a range of therapies can be used. â€Å"Numerous techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, guided imagery, biofeedback, the pre-suggestion phase of hypnosis, deep breathing exercises, autogenic training, tai chi, Qi gong and yoga can elicit the relaxation response† (Galvin et al, 2006 p 187). Obviously, a number of these techniques would require specialist training and specialist provision, and most likely, a private, designated and appropriate place in which to carry out the intervention. However, Gal vin et al’s (2006) research does suggest that progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery are effective techniques for inducing the relaxation response. Improving memory function in older adults who mental illness might be particularly beneficial and might help to reduce anxiety. Conrad and Roth (2007) discuss the use of progressive muscle relaxation in providing therapy for anxiety disorders. Conrad and Roth (2007) define muscle relaxation therapy as â€Å"an abbreviated therapy based on Jacobson’s original PMR, which included in its training procedure first tensing a muscle and then releasing that tension.† (p 244). They describe progressive muscle relaxation therapy as being based on the idea that tense, stressed, and anxious people can find some symptomatic and ongoing relief from their distress and the physiological responses which accompany it, by learning to reduce muscle tension within the body (Conrad and Roth, 2007).† A modern theoretical rationale for MRT is that an important element of psychological distress is elicitation of a generalized stress activation response, comprising multiple central and peripheral physiological systems †¦ [and] learning to deactivate a single subsystem, the muscular system, will reduce activati on in many other subsystems† (Conrad and Roth, 2007 p 244). Ost (1987) echoes these findings. Conrad and Roth’s (2007) review of the literature demonstrates clear physiological responses to muscle relaxation which have a number of health benefits, in reducing the effects of anxiety on the body and brain, and controlling the body’s response. Yu et al (2007) show that relaxation therapy reduces physiologic distress in patients with cardiovascular disease, and has beneficial effects on recovery. It could be assumed, from these findings, that similar physiological responses to relaxation therapy would be beneficial to the ageing body systems as well as to the psychological state and wellbeing of the older adult. Gerdner (2000) addresses the issue of distress and agitation and confusion in the elderly patient with Alzheimer’s disease, and looks at relaxation music as a means of improving these symptoms. Gerdner (2000) found that individualised relaxation music (music of preference to the patient) was very effective in reducing agitation and confusion. It would be appropriate, therefore, to provide a range of music for the patients receiving the intervention here, and this was tailored to patient preferences over time, looking at responses from patients, and asking patients and their carers about preferences. Although this can be difficult to implement in a group setting, it was also a useful adjunct to the relaxation sessions and could be used by patients when they practised the techniques individually. Murray (2008) found that relaxation techniques were of therapeutic benefit to patients with neurogenic disorders, including Parkinson’s disease. O’Conor et al (2008) found that this kind of behavioural treatment of psychologic disturbance in dementia was effective, but in the shorter term, and so the benefits were time-limited. Staal et al (2007) also found such behavioural interventions effective in dementia patients. However, this author believes that the therapies can continue to be of benefit to patients if they can learn to apply them independently, or if they are continued as a regular part of ongoing care. Other kinds of relaxation have been found to be particularly beneficial in elderly care, including animal-assisted therapy for dementia in the older adult (Filan and Llewellyn Jones, 2006; Sellers, 2005). All such interventions require is a dedicated practitioner to implement and evaluate them, and the facilities to carry them out. However, the literature is li mited on the use of such therapeutic interventions in the kind of setting I planned to use them in. A discussion of the process of the application and an evaluation of the outcome of the intervention in the practice area. This should include objective and subjective feedback from the person(s) involved In line with the planning of this intervention, the author devised two relaxation protocols to take place in a 16 bedded functional ward for adults over the age of 65 who suffer from a range of mental health illnessess, such as bi polar disorder, shizophrenia, depression, anxiety and onset dementia. The first protocol was a progressive muscle relaxation exercise, with a duration of around 15 minutes, supported by music that was acceptable to the patients present during the intervention. The second intervention was a guided imagery relaxation exercise, in which the patients were taken through a progressive relaxation and then guided through a set sequence of visualising themselves in a comfortable place. The details of the visualisation were kept quite generic, in order to avoid, if possible, unwanted negative associations with particular imagery, such as, for example, using water in patients who are afraid of water. Therefore, the visualisation placed the patient in their favourite c hair, in their favourite location, looking out of a window onto the sky and the landscape. They are guided to see blue skies, white clouds, rays of sunlight coming through the window, and to feel warm, relaxed and comfortable. A light breeze, warm and gentle, comes through the window. The patients are encouraged to feel very relaxed and comfortable, and to enjoy the sensations they are feeling. The therapeutic relaxation was carried out with patients daily, and there was a mix of patients attending each day. The therapy was carried out in the day room, and only those patients who could mobilise to the day room were included, and obviously, those who wished to join in. The staff were informed about the intention to offer this therapy, and discussion with the lead nurses/key workers for each patient revealed their thoughts about the suitability of the intervention for their patient. Details about each patient that were relevant to the intervention were gathered from the clinical staff, and from the patients themselves and their carers/family members. Having carried out a more detailed literature review meant that I was able to provide a good rationale to staff, patients and carers, and also to discuss the measures I had taken in order to avoid any negative consequences. There were a number of issues which made the implementation of the intervention challenging. The first was the fact that I had to carry this out within the day room that is provided for the patients as no other area is available. This was not exactly appropriate as the lighting is too bright even when the lights are off and the seating is not comfortable. To achieve a good state of relaxation, comfortable seating and subdued lighting is important. Although it was possible to play music, it was not sufficient to drown out other ward noise. Also some patients tended to wander in and out of the area, which couldnt be helped, however it did disturb the group. Feedback from certain patients showed that they did enjoy the relaxation, but they found it hard to achieve deep relaxed states due to the environment in which the intervention was taking place, and due to the disturbances from patients (and staff at times) coming in and out, and from ward noises such as phones ringing. Some patient s found the uncomfortable chairs worse than anything else. What this feedback shows, however, is that given the right environment, this intervention might be somewhat more effective. Patient feedback around the effects of the intervention was mixed. Some patients said they enjoyed it, but did not feel very much different. However, these were patients who also found it difficult to carry on the intervention in their own time, and this lack of significant effect could be related to the interruptions and bad environment, and to their lack of commitment to continuing relaxation exercises on their own. Some patients found it very hard to achieve relaxation at first, but after successive sessions, were able to master the techniques. Two patients (and their carers) provided very positive feedback, stating that they were using progressive muscle relaxation regularly to manage feelings of anxiety, fear, and depression. The literature reflects this finding (Peasley Mikus and Vrana, 2000; Jorm et al, 2004; Knott et al, 1997). I found this to be a very positive result. Feedback from the staff was similarly mixed. Staff were generally positive about the potential benefits of relaxation therapy, but were vocal and quite disparaging about the available facilities and location supporting this kind of intervention. Some expressed their doubts about patients being able to sit and apply the intervention, in certain cases. However, as stated, most were not opposed to the intervention. Feedback from staff, however, did not suggest that they viewed any particular benefit to patients, except in one case, where the patient’s key worker clearly stated that the relaxation techniques had helped with anxiety and depression symptoms. However, one of the negative issues that appeared in feedback from staff, patients and carers was the lack of belief in the ongoing usefulness of such therapies for certain patients, and the difficulty for certain patients, such as those with dementia, to follow the instructions and achieve a true state of relaxation. My evaluat ion of the intervention, however, would be that limiting it to two techniques was the right thing to do. The muscle relaxation alone was effective, but some patients did not tolerate the visualisation well. However, it is difficult to determine how beneficial these interventions might have been, because in my opinion, the negative effects of the poor environment, interruptions, noise and discomfort meant that it was difficult for them to achieve true relaxation. If I had had the facilities to measure physiological markers for a state of relaxation, I could have evaluated just how deep a state was achieved. In the circumstances, I do not believe that deep relaxation was achievable. Reflection on Personal Learning Outcomes My personal learning outcomes for this experience were very much related to my skills in communication with patients, staff and carers, my ability to develop a deeper understanding of a particular approach to supportive, therapeutic intervention in a clinical area, and the ability to apply principles of experiential learning and reflection to the experience in order to prepare for future practice. In relation to the development of communication skills, implementing this intervention required a lot of different types of communication, including communicating the benefits of the interventions to different types of people, patients, some of whom had cognitive or mental health issues, carers, who were lay people without specialist knowledge, and staff, who did have specialist knowledge. This required adaptability to different levels of communication, and good listening and interaction skills to be able to answer their questions appropriately and take their opinions into account prior to the intervention. In relation to the development of a detailed knowledge of a particular intervention, this was achieved through the detailed literature review, through talking to staff, and through carrying out the intervention. I gained a deeper understanding of the practicalities of this kind of intervention, and the environment and circumstances that are most conducive to achieving a state of relaxation. I also learned a lot about the kinds of things that assist in achieving a good state of relaxation, such as making sure everyone is ready, and that they have all been to the toilet and are not hungry or thirsty, and in the case of some patients, not in pain or emotionally distressed, or due to have a dose of medication. I only learned these things through attempting to implement the intervention. In reflecting on the evaluation, the light of the feedback from staff, patients and carers, it was difficult to receive so much negative feedback, and also to understand the reasons for some of this. It was frustrating not to be able to provide an optimal environment for relaxation, and to realise that things might have been better if we could have had a better setting for the intervention. However, the fact that a small number of patients and carers, and one key worker, reported beneficial effects of the intervention, was reassuring. Ideally, for this kind of therapy to be effective, providing the appropriate setting, and support, and building the therapy into daily care activities, and care plans, is important. Providing information for patients and carers on the activity, perhaps in the form of a patient/carer leaflet, would also be useful. Overall, I do believe that the intervention was a small success, and that in the future, with better forward planning and better facilities, it could present an opportunity for significant patient benefit for certain patients. References Conrad, A. and Roth, W.T. (2007) Muscle relaxation therapy for anxiety disorders: it works, but how? Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21 243-264. Filan, S.L. and and Llewellyn-Jones, R.H. (2006). Animal-assisted therapy for dementia: a review of the literature. International Psychogeriatrics, 18 597-611. Galvin, J.A., Benson, H., Deckro, G.R. et al (2006) The relaxation response: reducing stress and improving cognition in healthy aging adults. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 12 186-191. Gerdner, L.A. (2000). Effects of Individualized Versus Classical â€Å"Relaxation† Music on the Frequency of Agitation in Elderly Persons With Alzheimers Disease and Related Disorders. International Psychogeriatrics, 12 49-65 Hyman, R. B., Feldman, H. R., Harris, R. B., Levin, R. F., Malloy, G. B. (1989). The effects of relaxation training on clinical symptoms: a meta-analysis. Nursing Research, 38(4), 216–220. Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Griffiths, K. M., Parslow, R. A., Rodgers, B., Blewitt, K. A. (2004). Effectiveness of complementary and self-help treatments for anxiety disorders. Medical Journal of Australia, 181(7 Suppl.), S29–S46. Knott, V., Bakish, D., Lusk, S., Barkely, J. (1997). Relaxation-induced EEG alterations in panic disorder patients. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(4), 365–376 Lehrer, P.M. (1978). Psychophysiological effects of progressive relaxation in anxiety neurotic patients and of progressive relaxation and alpha feedback in nonpatients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(3), 389–404. Lehrer, P. M., Batey, D. M., Woolfolk, R. L., Remde, A., Garlick, T. (1988). The effect of repeated tense-release sequences on EMG and self-report of muscle tension: an evaluation of Jacobsonian and post-Jacobsonian assumptions about progressive relaxation. Psychophysiology, 25(5), 562–569. Marks, I. M. (2002). The maturing of therapy. Some brief psychotherapies help anxiety/depressive disorders but mechanisms of action are unclear. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 200–204. Murray, L.L. (2008) The Application of Relaxation Training Approaches to Patients With Neurogenic Disorders and Their Caregivers. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders 18 90-98. OConnor, D.W., Ames, D., Gardner, B and King, M. (2008) Psychosocial treatments of behavior symptoms in dementia: a systematic review of reports meeting quality standards. International Psychogeriatrics, Published online by Cambridge University Press 25 Sep 2008 Available from Accessed 8-1-09. Ost, L. G. (1987). Applied relaxation: description of a coping technique and review of controlled studies. BehaviourResearch and Therapy, 25(5), 397–409. Peasley-Miklus, C., Vrana, S. R. (2000). Effect of worrisome and relaxing thinking on fearful emotional processing. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(2), 129–144. Sellers, D.M. (2005) The Evaluation of an Animal Assisted Therapy Intervention for Elders with Dementia in Long-Term Care . ctivities, Adaptation Aging: 30 (1) 61 77 Staal, J.A., Sacks, A., Matheis, R. et al (2007) The Effects of Snoezelen (Multi-Sensory Behavior Therapy) and Psychiatric Care on Agitation, Apathy, and Activities of Daily Living in Dementia Patients on a Short Term Geriatric Psychiatric Inpatient Unit. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 37 (4) 357 370 Yu, D.S.F., Lee, D.T.F. and Woon, J. (2007) Effects of relaxation therapy on psychologic distress and symptom status in older Chinese patients with heart failure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 62 427-437.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Thousand Splendid Suns Comparison

It seems that War has found a home in Afghanistan. The people of Afghanistan have seen three decades of Anti-Soviet Jihad, civil war and Taliban tyranny. They have lived through unimaginable horrors and now, their incredible stories of hope and oppression are being told. In A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Hosseini and The Swallows of Kabul by Yasmina Khadra, the women are oppressed by their husbands and society. Mariam is passive and compliant while Zunaira is defiant and angry, yet both suffer the same pain and isolation. Initially, their suffering increases because their anger at being oppressed and tortured is deflected towards the wrong people, people who actually care for them. Through their difficult journeys, their eyes are opened up to the power and beauty of a loving relationship. The loss or gain of such a relationship is the defining factor of whether or not each character finds peace and self-worth. The women in both novels transition from a state of being hopeful to complete desolation due to the oppression in their lives. Initially, Mariam from A Thousand Splendid Suns expresses much hope about attaining a bright future. She wants to pursue an education as she says, â€Å"I mean a real school†¦like in a classroom, like my father's other kids† (Hosseini, 17). Mariam firmly believes that she can shed her shameful status of a bastard's child, and as she gets older, she takes strides to make this vision into a reality. Moreover, Mariam is constantly inundated with her mother's pessimistic ideals about life, but she believes that â€Å"You're [Mother] are afraid that I might find the happiness you never had. And you don't want me to be happy. You don't want a good life for me† (Hosseini, 28). As a result, at first, Mariam is a strong figure with a lively spirit who is able to combat much negativity in her life and continue to dream and hope of a better future. Perhaps, her naivety fosters these hopes and dreams as well. Later, Mariam's husband, Rasheed successfully crushes her strong spirit. During one of his fierce outbursts, â€Å"he shoved two fingers into her mouth and pried it open, then forced the cold pebbles into it†¦but he kept pushing the pebbles in, his upper lip curled into a sneer† (Hosseini, 104). Mariam is tortured psychologically, physically and her lively spirit is broken. She completely isolates herself from the outside world, and quietly suffers inside her house as â€Å"†¦Mariam was afraid† (Hosseini, 98). She is passive and compliant in the abusive relationship because she abandons all hope, and tries 1 to endure everything that falls upon her. Oppression crushes Mariam's inner strength and she becomes a walking dead person, confined to her own home. Furthermore, Zunaira from The Swallows of Kabul undergoes a similar transition from a state of hopefulness to desolation. At the beginning, Zunaira is a hopeful person. Her husband, Mohsen, says, â€Å"Her zeal was unmatched, save by the praises heaped upon her. She was a brilliant girl and her beauty lifted every heart† (Khadra, 73). She is extremely passionate about empowering the women in Afghanistan, that she even pursues a career as a magistrate to set an example to rest of her countrymen. Zunaira embodies hope, and positive change in a country devastated by war. Like Mariam, Zunaira's hopeful spirit sets her up on a high pedestal to fall from. Then, Zunaira is oppressed by the Taliban. She is writhing with anger and hatred when she says, â€Å"†¦the most detestable fact of [my] existence, to the constraint with anger and hatred that even in [my] dreams [I] refuse to accept: the forfeiture of [my] rights† (Khadra, 99). Anger and hatred threatens to rip Zunaira apart because she feels that the Taliban have stripped her off her dignity and humiliated her beyond endurance. Pride is important to Zunaira. Thus, she struggles to control her anger in public when she views the bitter state of her country, how the Taliban have destroyed her pride, hopes and dreams. Unlike Mariam, Zunaira is defiant and angry. Zunaira actually attains her goal of becoming a magistrate, and thus, she experiences a greater sensation of loss. Mariam and Zunaira combat the oppression in different ways but they suffer the same pain and isolation. Oppression induces a negative change in both characters. In addition, the women have coping mechanisms to deal with the sorrow in their lives. Their ability to cope is affected by family members. Mariam remembers her mother's story, â€Å"where each snowflake was a sigh heaved by an aggrieved woman somewhere in the World. That all the sighs drifted up in the sky, gathered in the clouds, and then broke into tiny pieces†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Hosseini, 91). Mariam is submissive in her abusive relationship because her mother has taught her by example, that Afghani women solely have to endure the pain and suffering in their lives. She makes no attempts to change her situation in her marriage because she lives by her mother's teachings. Perhaps, if Mariam were to stand up for herself or stir up chaos during one of Rasheed's beatings, Rasheed would not turn to violence against her so easily. Also, Mariam could have searched for alternatives to escape Rasheed before the Taliban implemented the harsh laws. Over the years, Mariam becomes increasingly helpless and miserable under Rasheed's rule, as she follows the model of her mother's teachings. Also, she deflects her anger and sorrow 2 towards the wrong people, people who actually care for her. Laila, Rasheed's younger wife tries to extend a friendship towards Mariam multiple times, but Mariam pushes Laila away. She screams at Laila, â€Å"†¦I have no use for your company†¦You will leave me be and I will return the favour. That's how we will get on. Those are the rules† (Hosseini, 226). As Mariam pushes Laila farther away, she only becomes a greater target of Rasheed's abuse because Rasheed tends to beat Mariam when he is angry with Laila. During a beating, Rasheed â€Å"held a belt in his hand†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and Mariam becomes absolutely petrified, but Laila tries to stand up for Mariam. United, Mariam and Laila are able to stand up to Rasheed and reduce the frequency and severity of Rasheed's beatings. By rebuffing Laila, Mariam only increases her own pain and suffering. The character's coping mechanisms seem to only destroy any remaining strands of courage and hope within them. Similarly, in The Swallows of Kabul, Zunaira tries to find a way to cope with the oppression in her life. At the beginning, she tries to forget her own pain and suffering to be strong for her husband. Mohsen, her husband, insists on taking a stroll in the streets of Kabul, and Zunaira refuses to go because she does not want to wear the Burqa. To Zunaira, the Burqa epitomizes the mistreatment and oppression of women in Afghanistan. In the end, Zunaira agrees to go with Mohsen when she says, â€Å"Let's go out. I'd rather run a thousand risks than to see you so demoralized† (Khadra, 79). Zunaira sacrifices some of her core values to make Mohsen happy, who is her only support system in this World. Though she does not want to lose Mohsen, her ability to cope with the oppression is hindered when she views firsthand the Taliban's brutality. Similarly, Zunaira's ability to cope with oppression is negatively impacted by the actions of her family members. Both women's hopes are crushed, but, Mariam becomes more compliant while a fire is ignited within Zunaira, which threatens to rip her apart. Also, Zunaira shuns her loved one out of her life. When Zunaira refuses to talk to Mohsen and remove her Burqa after the stroll in Kabul, he recounts, â€Å"her anger is so intense that her veil trembles before her agitated breathing and she says, ‘I don't ever want to see you again, Mohsen Ramat'† (Khadra, 129). At first, Zunaira uses her husband to cope, but later, she targets her fury towards him because she wants him to experience her great feeling of loss. Mohsen is a man, and Zunaira believes that a man will never allow a woman to attain her freedom. Like Mariam, she ends up deteriorating her life further because Mohsen accidentally dies during one of their fights. Thus, Zunaira loses another member of her family to the Taliban. Zunaira is angry, but her actions cause her loved ones to 3 suffer too, unlike Mariam who bottles up her fury and grieves alone. In the end, Mariam and Zunaira's coping mechanisms only accelerate their feelings of pain and isolation. Finally, the women in both novels undergo a period of self-realization by losing or gaining a loving relationship. Mariam is able to acquire a new found sense of inner strength. Laila and Mariam forge a special sisterly bond that Mariam can turn to for support and strength. Mariam says, â€Å"But, perhaps there were kinder years waiting still. A new life, a life which she would find the blessings that Nana had said a harami like her would never see† (Hosseini, 256). Her sisterly bond induces a positive change in Mariam as she starts to hope again. Mariam's spirit is rejuvenated, and she finds a newly acquired strength to defeat her oppressor, Rasheed. She frees herself off her primary oppressor for she finds the courage to kill Rasheed. She finds a state of inner peace at last. Also, Mariam finds a new purpose in life. Before Mariam is to be executed, she thinks, â€Å"A Weed. And yet she was leaving the World as a woman who had loved and been loved back†¦a person of consequence at last. No. It was not so bad†¦that she should die this way† (Hosseini, 370). Mariam is resented by her mother, father and husband, but her relationship with Laila and Aziza, Laila's daughter, redefine her outlook on life. Their love fills a hollow spot within Mariam, and it lessens the pain of living under oppression for decades. As Mariam has loved, she is finally able to shed her status of a arami and gain a new sense of selfworth. She sees the beauty in a loving relationship, and she finally does find peace and selfworth in her life. In The Swallows of Kabul, Zunaira makes an important self-discovery as well. By severing her ties to Mohsen, she attains a form of inner strength. When the Jailer, Atiq, tries to convince her to run away from the jail, she says, â €Å"I can't wait to get out of here, but not in the way you propose† (Khadra, 164). She accepts her fate and is prepared to die. With Mohsen's accidental death, Zunaira severs all ties to the physical world. She rids herself of all duties and obligations and deserts all of her hopes and dreams. She feels like a free spirit, symbolized by the removal of her Burqa. Her lightness renews her inner strength and now, she feels she can overcome any obstacle in her path, even dying. Though Zunaira attains a sense of inner peace by severing ties to loved ones, Mariam achieves this by finding the beauty in a loving relationship. Like Mariam, Zunaira is willing to die because their newly gained inner strength gives them the power to vanquish all obstacles in their path. Also, her loss of a loving relationship changes her perspective on life. She says to the Jailer, â€Å"We've already been killed, all of us, it happened so 4 long ago, we've forgotten it† (Khadra, 164). Zunaira realizes that she has lost everything to the Taliban, her family, her dignity, her hopes and dreams. When she sees that she has nothing worth living for anymore, she feels there is nothing more she can lose in this World, and thus, she thinks about life differently. The author does not elaborate about Zunaira's life after she is freed from the jail, but probably she dies in the near future because she does not have a home to return to. Similarly, Mariam and Zunaira are able to see the power and beauty of a loving relationship. Zunaira leaves behind her pride, and need to feel empowered while Mariam actually gains a new sense of self-worth. For Zunaira, leaving behind all the things attached to her relationship with Mohsen gives her peace. So, each character takes different routes to find peace and self-worth. A Thousand Splendid Suns by Khaled Hosseini and The Swallows of Kabul by Yasmina Khadra are both set in war-torn Afghanistan. The women are oppressed by their husbands and society. Then, the coping mechanisms they utilize only increase their pain and suffering. Finally, Mariam and Zunaira make an important self-discovery where they either gain or lose the power and beauty of a loving relationship to find peace and self-worth. Overall, Mariam and Zunaira seem to reverse their roles from the beginning to the end. Mariam is passive at first, but she becomes quite aggressive at the end. While, Zunaira follows the opposite path to achieve inner peace. Millions of women are oppressed around the World, and it seems that love is the critical factor to breaking the cycle of oppression.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Learning Through Play: Games and Crowdsourcing for Adult Education Essay

Games are a powerful to engage people with ideas and with each other. They are a way to learn new skills, and to interact with other people. This interaction can be with other people in the same room or with people online. Games are fun. This is obvious, but sometimes it can become forgotten about in the discussion. In research in 2011 by Bond University for the Interactive Games & Entertainment Association * pcs are in 98% of game households with 62% of game households using a pc for games. Game consoles are in 63% of game households, dedicated handheld consoles in 13%. Mobile phones are used to play games in 43% of game households, tablet computers in 13% * 43% of people aged 51 or over are garners * most garners play between half an hour and an hour at a time and most play every other day 59% play for up to an hour at one time and just 3% play for five or more hours in one sitting 57% of all gamers play either daily or every other day. * 83% of parents play video games. (1) Comparable statistics are not available for board, tabletop and card games. This is unfortunate as, from word of mouth, board games are very popular. The German, or European, style games have strong appeal for adults. Games in this category include Settlers of Catan (2) and Carcassone. (3) Board games can be used as part of an education program exploring games, game design, history, and strategy. They could also be used to introduce adults to games they did not play when they were growing up–and that is just the start of what is possible. Find the future New York Public Library received much coverage for its 2011 game Find the future (10) which ran as part of their centenary celebrations as a way for people to discover and explore the collection. The game was deliberately designed with an education focus. The first night of the game was run as an event for five hundred people. After this people could play this game at their own pace and in their own time, at the library. Changing thinking about games There is still reluctance, despite the overwhelming statistics, for many libraries to admit how many of the adults who use their collections and services probably play games. Earlier this year Heikki Holmas, the new Norwegian minister for international development, was given media coverage because of his public statements about his own playing of Dungeons and Dragons, and how skills are learned in games which have real world applications. This means that his tabletop games skills will help him in parliament. (11) Adam Grimm highlights some of the skills and attributes gained or developed by playing Dungeons and Dragons which include imagination, structure, performance and problem solving. (12) People like Heikki Holmas and Adam Grimm are using our libraries and we are rarely giving them a way to engage–or may be guilty of making judgments about them because of the games they play. The Central Arkansas Library System ran programming for adults teaching people about playing World of Warcraft. This may seem an unusual game to be part of a library education program. However, the aim of this education program was social inclusion, and it was thought that playing a game like World of Warcraft may be one way to assist in this locally. Library staff were pleased with the outcomes. (13,14) There are many opportunities in libraries using games for education Some of these can be done by showing how exciting games can be and by having people realise that the boardgames they may have played as children, or even have played with their children have developed and new possibilities target adult players. Playing Carcassonne could be used as part of an adult education program on medieval history, so people could be discussing the history they are reading, but also play a game constructing a medieval town and so apply the ideas they have learned from reading or hearing about the medieval world. Games can allow a different angle on creativity in education programming. Brian Mayer and Christopher Harris in their book Libraries got game: aligned learning through modern board games have written about this from a primary school aged perspective, but many of their ideas apply to learning through games at any age. (15) They also make the point strongly that a game has to really be a game. This sounds obvious, yet people forget this point surprisingly often. There is a lot of tools to help with boardgames. BoardGameGeek (16) is an invaluable online resource with detailed reviews about boardgames as well as walk throughs of the different games. Table Top with Wil Wheaton by Geek & Sundry (17) is an excellent video channel to learn how different table top games are played–so you can start thinking about their place in educational programming, and not simply programs about learning to play games. The Game Library for the School Library System of Genesee Valley Educational Partnership (18) has some useful resources for games targeting infants and primary aged children. Science games There are also ways to draw in the community through games. A game like (19) a University of Washington initiative which is about folding proteins has resulted in scientific breakthroughs. (20) It was designed to trigger scientific discovery, but the game is also an experiment. could be used as part of a series of science talks, with visiting or local scientists, at a library where the participants could join in with others who are contributing to scientific discoveries. Then people could be working in a collaborative space in the library, folding proteins together interacting with the other people also in the library space as well as others online in This could appeal to a wide range of ages, from students considering science careers, to adults wanting creative and puzzle solving options. It is a free, social, online game. EteRNA, (21) a collaboration between Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon University has similar concepts. This is a game about RNA molecules, and again serious science is being done through playing games. (22) This would also make for interesting library programming. These games could be part of a series about science, but equally they could be part of a series about games to help more people understand the range of options available to people who play games exploring creative problem solving, and helping to do science at the same time. Both and EteRNA would be useful inclusions with library based science programming, and could provide a useful tie in to your library collection, including databases. The Science Museum in London has a significant collection of online games about science, which could be used to help people learn more about specific ideas, as well as to explore ideas of game design and engagement. (23) Through all this science it is important to remember the ideas of Mayer and Harris, that first and foremost the games have to be fun. Zombie Climate Apocalypse (24) run by The Edge at the State Library of Queensland may seem an unusual inclusion for science games–however the game is about survival. The players have to problem solve a vast range of survival skills (including water purification) so science is really important. A game like Zombie Apocalypse taps into many library collections (books, dvds and databases with information about the idea of zombies and survival), and can help bring a new range of clients to the library. A game like this can also be used to bring in ideas from places like the USA Centre for Disease Control and its web pages about zombie preparedness (25) which they created as a different way for people to think about disaster preparedness. If you are ready to survive zombies you are probably ready for other natural disasters as well. Science is well suited to education programs involving games, using ideas for partnerships mentioned above. Unlike Orange County Library Service we are not all going to have Otronicon in our area. Otronicon explored the science, art, technology, careers and fun behind videogames, simulation and digital media. Each year, multiple industry partners join the Orlando Science Center to celebrate how digital media technologies impact the way we live, learn, work and play. (26) Orange County Library Service has also been highlighting games as part of its services, and as part of the education program. They have classes teaching game design, but also educating people about the employment possibilities presented by games. (27) We will all have scientists in our communities, no matter how small. It just requires some creative thinking to explore partnerships, and to consider who you might invite to your library as part of a science education program including games, collections and science databases. Games design for all ages This is an area of potential partnership with universities which teach game design (if they are local to your area) or with local games groups. It is a specialist area of education. Some public libraries and museums have been running programs on game design, mainly targeting children and teenagers. There is much underexplored potential for running this kind of education program for adults. It also might be about seeing if you can create a game to help people explore the history of their area so the education elements would be around research (so that the history of the area can be explored), and games design (to see if a meaningful game can be created for the community). This is a specialist area, needing specialist trainers. Be open to the formats you are considering, as the games do not need to be made on computers or even for computers. Board games are a very popular format, as are large scale games outdoors.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Business Strategy For Hewlett Packard Company - 1444 Words

1. Introduction Among global manufacturers, offshoring, obtaining products and services from overseas, has been one of the most widely used strategies to take advantage of the arbitrage of labour cost. However, in recently years, reshoring seem to be the new trend in business as a recent survey conducted by the Boston Consulting Group found that 21 per cent of a sample of 200 executives of large manufacturers were either already relocating production to the US, or planning to do so within the next two years. A further 33 per cent said they were considering it, or would consider it in the near future. [1] Many well-known companies such as Google, General Electric, Caterpillar and Ford Motor Company are moving part of their production or adding new plants back in their country of origin.[3] In my point of view, there is a potential opportunity for Hewlett-Packard Company to reshore part of their value chain activities in its personal system division back to the US, as detailed proposal and analysis will be discussed as follow. 2ï ¼Å½Company Background Hewlett-Packard Company (HP) is an American multinational information technology corporation established in 1939. It provides personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises across 170 countries around the world. 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