Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The Concept of the Self in the Social World University Of Phoenix Understanding What Self Concept is Self Concept is the gathering of information about self, including ones personality, character, capabilities, and values. Self concept begins as an early as infancy, during this time the individual begins to formulate information about themselves. This process allows them to prepare and began to understand how they are related to others in their social world. IndividualsÃ¢â¬â¢ going through this process of development is an exact reaction that is a result of their relationship with their peers and family members. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s self concept is less likely to be as defined but more set on things like physical looks, skills, and what materialistic things that they have in common. As the individual gets older the self concept becomes more compound and defined. The individual takes into consideration the social comparison. This paper will discuss self concept in the social world according to Myers, examples of how self concept is related to me and two social experiences that have had an effect on my development personally. Self Concept in the Social World The most essential aspect of you is you (Myers 2010). Self concept is a combination of various things that an individual feels contributes to who they are. Self concept involves what gender or gender role you play, how smart or not smart an individual sees themselves, even their sexuality. The components of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self concept and those exact things that an individual believes makes them who they are called self schemas (Myers 2010). Self schemas is the mental way that we classify ourselves, tall or short, big or small, rich poor. Self schemas also help the way the we perceive others and ourselves. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s self concept also helps the way we perceive ourselves in the present form and the way we perceive ourselves in the future (Myers 2010). Our social behavior is also affected by our self concept. In the social world we are often placed into new roles in our life. These new roles help us to discover things that may not have been considered before, leadership or teaching are some examples. Social Comparison The way we view ourselves as being smart, lazy, or rich have to do with the way we compare ourselves to our social world. The majority of our life is based off of social comparison (Myers 2010). We often times view ourselves differently than what we view others. When people are doing better than us we tend to compare ourselves in hopes that we will reach their level of greatness (Myers 2010). The way that others view us are also a part of what affects our social concept. If people in the social world view us smart or pretty, dumb or ugly then there is a chance that we will view ourselves the same way. Charles H. Cooley developed the looking glass self which states that we use how we think people perceive us as the way we perceive ourselves. George Herbert Mead came and filtered CooleyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory by saying that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter how others see us but how we think they see us. Applying Self to My Life Self Concept When I consider what self concept is exactly, how I view myself, (Myers 2010) I think back to my social surroundings. Prior to this class I never considered how big of a part my up bring affected the way that I view myself. There may have been a time when I viewed myself as dumb instead of not comprehending something. When in actuality it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that I am dumb but that I just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t grasp an understanding of the problem. As an adult and having younger people looking at me I try to create a sense of positivity around them, so that they can see past the current situations that they may be facing. I never considered this to be a part of me having an impact on their self concept. Self Esteem Self esteem is a part of self concept. I believe my self esteem plays a big part in my personal worth and the way that I value myself. Studies show that low self esteem can result in violence (Roy & Smart & Boden). I think that my self esteem affects the way that I dress, the compared to hierarchy of needs. Abraham Maslow, hierarchy of needs, suggests that we not only need the esteem from others but also the respect that I have for myself. For myself my self esteem has helped me have pride in myself and hold my head high in different situations. Personally I believe that my self esteem has helped me make some of the choices IÃ¢â¬â¢ve made about my body and mind. Esteem set to highly in high school can lead to poor achievements (Purkey). Although my self esteem has been good for the most part people that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve surrounded myself with have kept me humble. Self Efficacy My self efficacy like my self concept and self esteem started when I was younger. I was always told to reach for my dreams and set my mind to whatever it is I wanted out of life I go for it. Similar to my self esteem I think my self efficacy has had an effect on my motivation and the way that I behave. I think that life throws curve balls but because of my self efficacy even though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t succeed in the beginning I donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow those things to let me give up. I also believe that because of my self efficacy when I am very interested in something I usually dedicate myself to it 100 percent. Two Social Experiences Growing Up I kind of grew up with the good vs. vil lifestyle. Although both my parents grew up in the same neighborhood they were raised differently. My mother grew up in a very religious house, my father grew up on the slightly criminal and drug environment. I grew up with my father being on drugs and an alcoholic. It actually started right after I was born. This left me feeling like I was the cause for a long time even though in reality I ha d nothing to do with it. My mother was forced to work a lot of jobs, as many as four at one time. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t remember being told I was pretty from my parents but I had 3 brothers who did. I also had my grandparents who influenced my life for the better, I think instead of taking the negative I tried to use it as a positive. Instead of me judging or hating my mother because she was never around I looked at her as having a lot of strength. I learned that no matter the situation you have to keep pushing. In return I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I show emotions a lot of times. My fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s situation made me stay away from drugs for the most part minus my experimenting with weed. Being Helpful My grandparents for as long as I can remember gave whatever they had to help even though they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been the type of child who always wanted to make sure those older than me where okay. As I grew older I in a way it was by chance that I walked into my career choice. In the beginning it was because I needed a job, but my desire and passion to help others has kept me there for as long as it has. I have always wanted to help people no matter the age, gender, or circumstance. I also believe that this is the reason I have stuck with psychology. I have had many setbacks since I began the quest for this degree in 2000, but I feel like this is my lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s calling and I have to graduate. Conclusion The concept of the self I a social world is really amazing. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s very interesting how your social surroundings as small as infants can carry on to adulthood and play a big part in the individual that you become. I believe if more people realized the importunacy of self concept, self esteem, and self efficacy then individuals could possibly have a better life and an outlook on life. Work Cited Baumeister, Roy F. ; Smart, Laura; Boden, Joseph M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self esteem. Psychological Review, 103 (1) 5-33 Bracken, Bruce A. Ed), (1996). Handbook of self-concept: Developmental, social, and clinical considerations, (pp. 38-90). Marsh, W. Herbert, Shavelson, Richard (2010). Self Concept: Its Multifaceted, Hierarchical Structure. 107-123 Mcleod, S. A. (2008). Simply Psychology; The Self Concept in Psychology. Retrieved 19 December 2011, from http://www. simplypsychology. org/self-concept. html Myers, D. (2010 ). Social Psychology (10th ed. ). New York: McGraw Hill. Pajares, Frank; Miller, M. David. (1994) Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 86(2), 193-203. Purkey, William Watson. (1970). Self Consept and School Achievment.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Introduction Genetically modified, by definition, is a term denoting or derived from an organism whose DNA has been altered for the purpose of improvement or correction of defects. (dictionary. com) Genetically modified foods are foods that have been altered to enhance certain traits for the purpose of making them more desirable to consumers. Since the development of this process, modified foods have become more common throughout the years, and with their increase in production there has also been great controversy. History of Genetically Modified Foods In 1994, the first genetically modified food the Food and Drug Administration deemed safe enough for human consumption was a tomato called the Ã¢â¬Å"Flavr Savr,Ã¢â¬ produced in California. The purpose of altering the tomato was for it to be resistant to rotting and decaying as quickly as tomatoes usually do. They were not labeled as being genetically modified and they were between two and five time more expensive than ordinary tomatoes, but consumers still purchased them. However, due to competition, brought on by a tomato made conventionally and with a longer shelf life, the Flavr Savr tomatoes were not profitable. Genetically modified tomatoes were then made into a tomato puree and sold in Europe in the mid-1990s, but a couple years later controversy arose over the concept of genetically modifying food. In 1998, a doctor from Aberdeen, in Scotland, published results from a research study he conducted suggesting that genetically modified potatoes, injected with an insecticide gene from the snowdrop plant, were toxic to rats. A year later it was announced that beginning in 1999, there were to be trials of genetically modified crops engineered to be resistant to herbicides. The purpose of the trials was to uncover the effects of these crops on farmland wildlife. However, this was criticized to be potentially dangerous to nearby crops, as well as honey that could be affected by cross-pollination. Sure enough, later that year pollen from genetically modified oilseed rape, a plant that is used to produce canola oil, was found at beehives almost three miles away. Two out of nine samples of honey being sold in supermarkets were contaminated in May 2000. At this point in time, nine out of ten people were against the idea of genetically modifying foods. (dailymail. co. uk) Despite the controversy surrounding genetically modified plants and foods in earlier years, technologies have advanced, and in 2006, 10. 3 million farmers planted 252 million acres of transgenic crops in 22 countries. The United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India, China, Paraguay, and South Africa grew 97% of these crops. Soybeans, corn, cotton, canola, and alfalfa were modified to be herbicide and insect resistant, whereas other crops, like sweet potatoes for instance were modified to be able to survive harsh weather conditions. (Ornl. gov) The process of genetic modification Genetically modifying foods changes their genetic makeup in some way. The purpose of doing this is to enhance certain aspects of the food, for example, increasing its resistance to herbicides or its nutritional value. Traditionally, this has been done by way of selectively breeding plants or animals for specific genetic traits, however this method has proven to be potentially inaccurate and very time consuming. Genetic modification on the other hand can physically isolate a particular gene and insert it into another substance, enabling it to then posses that quality. This is done very quickly and accurately. Plants can be made insect resistant, virus resistant, or more tolerant to herbicides. Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that produces a gene for toxin production that is safe for human production. To achieve insect resistance, the gene is injected into the crops that will then be able to produce this toxin on their own, leading to a decreased need for insecticides. To achieve virus resistance, crops must be introduced to the gene from that particular disease-causing virus. This results in less susceptibility to the disease and higher crop yields. Similarly, to achieve herbicide tolerance, a gene from a bacterium that will transmit resistance to some herbicides must be injected into the crops, in turn reducing the amount of herbicides used. Purpose of genetically modifying foods. There are many reasons for producing and selling genetically modified foods over those that are traditionally produced. Originally, the intent was increased protection of crops. This is still one of the processÃ¢â¬â¢ objectives, however there are many additional benefits recognized today. Both consumers and producers who feel that genetically modified foods are advantageous believe that these foods can be cheaper, more durable, and more nutritional. Genetically modifying foods is also a way to ensure that with a world population that is predicted to double in the future, a food shortage will not be encountered. In addition to increased protection from diseases, pests and herbicides, there are other key reasons for genetic modification. Many crops are destroyed due to troubling weather conditions. Frost can come at unexpected times causing destruction to sensitive crops. Cold water fish have an antifreeze gene which, when introduced to plants like tobacco and potatoes, can lead to a higher tolerance to cold temperatures. Similarly, plants can also develop the ability to withstand droughts. A very important quality of food is the nutritional value that is possesses. Malnutrition is quite prevalent, especially in third world countries where people tend to rely on only one crop to fulfill their dietary needs. If however, these crops could be genetically modified to contain the amount of vitamins and nutrients necessary to sustain a healthy diet, it would be a great advantage. For example, in third world countries blindness caused by a vitamin A deficiency is very common, so researchers at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Institute for Plant Sciences have developed what they call, Ã¢â¬Å"goldenÃ¢â¬ rice, which contains uniquely high levels of vitamin A. The hope in this development is that this rice, funded by the non-profit organization Rockefeller Foundation, can be sent to any countries that request it. Vaccinations and medicines can be very difficult to produce, and they can also be very costly. Through genetic modification there is hope that the ability to produce foods with edible vaccinations in them will become a possibility. Common Genetically Modified Foods According to a WebMD article, experts say that about sixty to seventy percent of processed foods sold in the United States contain genetically modified ingredients. Soybeans, , corn, cotton, and rapeseed oil are the most commonly genetically modified foods. In other words, any foods that contain field corn, high-fructose corn syrup, soybeans, cottonseed oil, or canola oil all contain genetically modified ingredients. These ingredients are extremely common in most foods, much more so than most people are aware of. According to a study funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, only 52% of Americans are aware that genetically modified foods are even sold in grocery stores. The United States is the largest producer of corn in the world, and in 2000 it was estimated that 25% of corn crops growing in the United States were genetically modified. Corn is an ingredient in beer, salad dressing, margarine, flour, and anything containing corn syrup. The corn sold in stores is not necessarily intended to be genetically modified, however the concern for cross contamination between crops is there, since corn is wind-pollinated. Soy is the most heavily modified crop, and more than half the soy in the world was made up of genetically modified strains in 2007. There are different reasons for the modification of soy, including an added resistance to insects, and increasing its vitamin or fat and protein content in order to be suitable for animal feed. Soy is also used for creating chemicals used in pharmaceuticals. The likelihood of products in the United States containing genetically modified materials if they contain soy is very high, despite the lack of any labeling stating so. Tofu and soy milk are obviously effected products, however soy is also present in bread, cereal, ice cream and chocolate. Milk can be made from a genetically modified hormone called the recombinant bovine growth hormone. The function of this hormone is to produce more milk by keeping cells to produce milk alive in cows for longer periods of time. There is no proven difference between milk produced with the hormone versus that produced without it, however cows injected with the hormone are more prone to disease which can in turn have negative effects on the milk. Rapeseed oil, or canola oil, is one of the most genetically modified crops used. 80% of canola crops in Western Canada have been genetically modified. It is modified in the area of herbicide resistance. Also, modified rapeseed crops produce the main pollen used in the making of honey, suggesting that most honey from Canada could likely qualify as genetically modified. Advantages of Genetically Modified Foods Genetically modified foods offer several advantages. As already mentioned, an increased resistance to pests and diseases, the tolerance against bad weather conditions, and an increase in food supply are all obviously positive aspects. Crops have a better taste and quality when they are modified and they also have increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance. The time it takes for crops to mature is reduced as well. As far as the advantages for animals, they develop an increased resistance, productivity, and feed efficiency. They also produce more food, and their health can improve. The environment can benefit from genetically modifying foods as well. Firstly, the bioherbicides and bioinsecticides are environmentally friendly. Because genetic modification improves the resistance of plants and reduces their maturation time, soil, water, and energy can also be conserved. There is better natural waste management associated with genetic modification, and food processing is more efficient. Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Foods Despite the advantages of genetically modifying foods, the disadvantages of doing so seem to greatly outweigh the positive aspects of it. The most common criticisms against GM foods are in regards to the environment, health risks, and economic worries. Firstly, there have been several harmful, yet unintended effects on organisms in the environment. Monarch butterfly caterpillars have suffered an increased mortality rate due to the gene injected in corn crops. Though the caterpillars do not consume corn crops, they consume milkweed plants in neighboring fields, where the wind could easily transfer the pollen. There was a study done to test this theory, and the study did in fact support it. Another environmental concern is that the genes used to enhance certain crops will be transferred over to species unintended to contain the gene. For instance, in the case of crops that are introduced to a gene enabling them to develop an increased resistance to herbicides, the gene can potentially spread into the weeds themselves, causing them too to develop a higher herbicide resistance. This could cause problems because the weeds would then become very difficult to combat which could possibly ruin the crops. The concern for human health risks in regards to genetically modified foods is very high as well. Firstly, food allergies are very common among people in Europe and the United States, and in some cases these allergies can be fatal. The possibility that adding genes to plants could cause allergic reactions in susceptible people is there, and it is a very threatening possibility. Secondly, genetically modified foods pose an unknown overall threat to human health. Despite the lack of proof that foods made of genetically modified materials can be harmful to people, there have been studies showing that certain GM foods are in fact harmful to the digestive tract of rats. Just the fact that the effects of GM food on people are still not completely known also poses a huge threat in itself. From an economic perspective, genetically modifying foods is very costly. With new technologies that are continuously surfacing, companies are starting to want to patent their ideas, and this raises the concern that with patents will come a raise in price of seeds, making business very difficult for farmers who will not be able to afford them. This would result in the domination of food production throughout the world by only a few companies if GM foods reached such a high existence. It would also increase the dependence of developing countries on industrialized nations. Lastly, it could also result in biopiracy, or foreign exploitation of natural resources. There are ethical issues surrounding genetic modification as well. Many people question if it is unethical to alter nature by taking the genes of one species and mixing it with another. There is also the question of whether or not it is ethically wrong to violate the essential values of organisms. This process can stress animals as well, as their natural ways of life and food production are being compromised in ways that are having essentially unknown effects on the animal. The ethicality of labeling foods as genetically modified is a very controversial issue. In the United States, labeling foods is not mandatory and to the many people who do not want to consume these foods, this is viewed as very unethical. Laws of Genetically Modified Foods The laws and governmental regulations of genetically modifying food varies throughout the world, yet a common factor is that all of these different governments are in fact working towards establishing regulatory processes. In Japan, as of April 2001, testing GM foods was made mandatory. In the United States, regulation is achieved by several different governmental agencies, such as the US Environmental Protection. Agency, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Food and Drug Administration. The EPA is responsible for regulating the substances used that may cause possible harm to the environment and human health, pesticides for example. Farmers need to obtain licenses in order to use such chemicals, and the amount they are permitted ot use is regulated. The USDA includes different divisions each responsible for their own branch of assessment. Ã¢â¬Å" Among these divisions are APHIS, the Animal Health and Plant Inspection Service, which conducts field tests and issues permits to grow GM crops, the Agricultural Research Service which performs in-house GM food research, and the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service which oversees the USDA risk assessment program. Ã¢â¬ (Csa. com) The FDA is involved when companies producing GM foods have issues they feel they want to consult with them about. They are not required to go to the FDA though. The future of Genetically Modified Foods Currently, genetically modified ingredients are present in many foods, however the process is mostly limited to altering the ingredients in the area of improved sustainability. In the future, there are plans to genetically modify much more. For example, there are plans to try to produce foods with the ability to produce human vaccinations. There are also plans to genetically alter food animals, like pigs, cows, and most recently salmon. Conclusion Genetically modified foods have come a long way since their first introduction into the market. They have great potential to solve many problems and improve upon many conditions. However, there are many challenges facing governments as far as the advancement of genetically modified foods is concerned. Regulations, food testing, and uncovering more of the possible effects on both human health and the environment are all great issues involved. The concept of genetic modification is also very controversial. However, regardless of the obstacles and controversy surrounding this phenomenon, it is becoming much more widespread throughout the world. Works Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? Ã¢â¬ CSA. Web. 24 Oct. 2010. . Ã¢â¬Å"Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms Ã¢â¬âHGP Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues. Ã¢â¬ Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 24 Oct. 2010. . Ã¢â¬Å"Development and History of GM Foods Ã¢â¬â Genetically Modified Foods (UK). Ã¢â¬ Comphrensive Advice on Genetically Modified Foods at Genetically Modified Foods (UK). Web. 24 Oct. 2010. . Chapman, By James. Ã¢â¬Å"History of Genetically Modified Food | Mail Online. Ã¢â¬ Home | Mail Online. Web. 24 Oct. 2010. . Jibrin, By Janis. Ã¢â¬Å"Genetically Modified Foods (Biotech Foods) Pros and Cons. Ã¢â¬ WebMD Ã¢â¬â Better Information. Better Health. Web. 1 Nov. 2010. . dictionary. com.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Revolutionary Soldier During Joseph Martin journey in the revolution war he found himself not agreeing with many of the things the other soldiers were used to doing. The other soldiers were used to always getting what they wanted, when they wanted it. In order to do this, whenever they needed something, such as food they would just barge into nearby homes and demand for what they wanted. Most home owners knew that if they didn't do what the soldiers asked, that things would go very bad quickly. Meaning a large amount of the home owners would just be friendly and give the soldiers what they wanted just to keep the peace.Also some of the home owners enjoyed getting a visit from the soldiers because it made them fell wanted and thankfully to help support a fellow soldier. Martin didn't have the same view as many of the soldiers did on this certain activity. Well he was involved with doing that activity he would feel guilty and wanted to apologize to the family because he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t t hink they deserved such a thing. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy doing it because he believed it was rude and that they were abusing their power of authority. Before he went to war he learned right from wrong and would never imagine doing such a thing to innocent citizens in the area.The only reason that he would participate in this activity was because Soldiers during the war had been doing it prior to when he entered the war and he didn't want to deal with all the others soldiers by telling them his real opinion on it. Also he needed the items the other soldiers were asking for as well but just wanted there to be another way for them to get it. Even though he didn't agree with many of the things he had to do while he was gone at war, going into other people's home uninvited was the thing he disagreed with the most. Even thought he was there for many days, they were a few days that he remembered quite well.One day he remembered was when he was just relaxing at the cabin he was staying at wi th some fellow soldiers, when two lovely women come over to talk to them. They had a great conversion with the ladies, and the ladies ended up inviting them over to their place to visit more. Soon after arriving at the ladies place, the ladies expressed to the soldiers that their closest neighbors weren't very respectful to them. Ã¢â¬ when the mother observed that it had been quite cross and crying all Martin, Ã¢â¬Å"I have been threatening,Ã¢â¬ said she, Ã¢â¬Å"to give her to the Yankees. Ã¢â¬Å"Take care,Ã¢â¬ said the wagoner, Ã¢â¬Å"how you speak of the Yankees, I have one of them here with me. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"La! Ã¢â¬ said the woman, Ã¢â¬Å"is he a Yankee? I thought he was a Pennsylvanian;Ã¢â¬âI I donÃ¢â¬â¢t see any difference between him and other peopleÃ¢â¬ . The men didn't like that because they believed that all women should be treated with respect. As the soldiers they were, they decided to all march over to the ladies neighbors and demand for food in a vi olent way. At first when the soldiers arrived the man who opened the door wanted to put up a fight and not let the soldiers demand for items they needed just because for who they were.Soon after the man realized he wasn't going to win the fight he let the soldiers come inside his house and told his wife to make some bread. Everything turned out fine, the soldiers got what they wanted and the neighbors didn't get hurt. Although Martin wished they would of aproshed the situation differently and more safely. In most situation Martin at least understand why the soldiers would go to ransoms people house, it was because they had something they needed. But one day was different and Martin really didn't agree with the other soldiers. but when we came to their stables, then look out for the women; take what horse you would, it was one or the others Ã¢â¬Å"ponyÃ¢â¬ and they had no other to ride to church; and when we had got possession of a horse we were sure to have half a dozen or more w omen pressing upon us, until by some means or other, if possible, they would slip the bridle from the horseÃ¢â¬â¢s head, and then we might catch him again if we couldÃ¢â¬ On this day they soldiers decided to go into the local village in order to get some items they needed.Well at least that is what Martin thought. After they got there the soldiers were crazy and were taking everything they could even if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need it in the first place. Like the good man he was, Martin turned out only taking the necessary items he personal needed. By doing that it left the village a mess and all the villagers scared and upset. Also making Martin very unpleased with his fellow soldiers. Even though Martin didn't agree with making innocent citizens in the area give them what they wanted or else.Or messing up a village for items they needed along with unnecessary items. Martin decided early on during this war experience that he was just going to go with the flow of what everyone else was doing. That way he doesn't had to end up telling the soldiers his opinion and deal with any conflict there may be with it. He was afraid of the superiors reaction to what he thought and he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be punished for his thoughts.Even though his biggest trouble during the war was taking items from innocent citizens, there were many other circumstances that troubled him as well such as the conditions that he had to work under where horrible and they contributed to many people getting sick. Ã¢â¬Å"I had the small pox favorably as did the rest, generally; we lost none; but it was more by good luck, or rather a kind Providence interfering, than by my good conduct that I escaped with life. Ã¢â¬ They marched and marched and they would push their bodies to the limit.They fought under tough conditions and through the winter without a reliable way to get warm. Joseph Really did not like this at all he wanted to be warm and be able to stay healthy. Throughout this book Martin had many views on the revolutionary war. Most of them were negative such as he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like taking supplies from the villages. The conditions of the war were really rough and he ended up getting small pox from that. He nearly lost his life from the small pox.His view before he entered the war and his view after were completely different. The war changed him and his view on the whole thing. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. Martin, Joesph P. A Narrative of a Revolutionary Soldier. USA: First Signet Classics Printing, 2001. Print. Ch4 [ 2 ]. Martin, Joesph P. A Narrative of a Revolutionary Soldier. USA: First Signet Classics Printing, 2001. Print. Ch4 [ 3 ]. Martin, Joesph P. A Narrative of a Revolutionary Soldier. USA: First Signet Classics Printing, 2001. Print. Ch 3
Death penalty - Research Paper Example Marzili observes that Criminologists, Lawyers and other practitioners have over the years tried to analyze and study the rate at which murder declined after murderers are executed but there have been no authoritative conclusive results. In 1973 however, Isaac Ehrilch research carried in the United Sates showed that for every one inmate executed, seven lives were spared as potential murderers were prevented from committing such crimes. The results were similarly observed by his disciples. For those who support capital punishment, the likelihood of tangible results not being felt, they argue, is as a result of lack of swiftness in executing the convicted culprits. For this MSU authoritatively asserts that: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The fact that some states or countries which do not use the death penalty have lower murder rates than jurisdictions which do is not evidence of the failure of deterrence. States with high murder rates would have even higher rates if they did use the death penaltyÃ¢â¬â¢. Indeed, others have supported the argument citing that it is preventive in the sense that people in general fear death more so death that is planned and decided by the courts. Even more interestingly is the fact that death penalty against a murderer would prevent him from committing any other offence ever and thus seen as a permanent deterrent measure. Further, these executions take approximately forty days before they are conducted. But one issue that begs the question why should the convicted be made to wait on death row? Why long wait in death row While the death penalty is seen by many as just, some people have argued that often times those convicted of murder and sentenced to death are put on wait for too long. This is more compounded by the cost incurred as any investigation relating to death penalty usually costs three times more than a non-death case (Marzili 50). When one is convicted and sentenced to death, they are usually put on death row during which time the state expends housing, health-care and food costs on them. However, some of the reasons which have been cited for long death row are many and how that affects the cases have some moral standing (Marzili, 58). First, if the convict becomes sick or ill, then he has to be treated before the execution takes place. Olando (2009) provides a case where in 2003 about $121,025 was spent on a life saving dialysis for a condemned killer who had been subjected to death row for six years. This was the case involving Horacio Alberto Reyes who was c onvicted of murdering Maria Zetina. He wanted a kidney transplant and argued that this would save tax payers in the long run (Olarndo 8). Secondly, it allows for arbitrary search of any pending justice. Reverend Jesse Jackson had once argued that death sentence is basically an arbitrary punishment. According to him, it does not entail objective templates or guidelines when it should be sought or executed. Therefore, the lack of the objectivity leading to discriminatory practices puts it that whoever is sentenced is allowed humble time to seek redress through an appeal. He further argues that many Americans support of death penalty is anchored on individual propensity to violence, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s criminal history among other factors; parameters
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Reading Response # 3 - Assignment Example The loss of a few thousand innocent lives was something which radically changed the way Americans think about Muslims and their religion. In order to argue whether there is really a clash of civilization as suggested by Huntington or the reaction is just Muslim or Arab Phobia, it is important to understand the roots of this conflict and how this difference emerged. The theory of clash of civilization is basically based upon the notion of clash of cultures and civilizations with each other. Underlying this theory is the belief that future conflicts between people will be based upon culture of people and that democracy or free markets is not the only ideology of the world. This notion therefore suggests that the primary axis of conflict will be religion as well as the culture of the people. Considering this position, the post 9/11 scenario may not seem as a clash of civilizations but rather Muslim or Arab phobia. The obvious reasons for the attack of 9/11 were based upon the belief that US has supported or illegally occupied and plundered the resources belonging to the Muslim world. This conflict was however by few groups against the State rather than a Muslim State against America. The videos suggested that there is a general Arab and Muslim Phobia because in the War against terror many Muslim countries actually supported the US in its war against Al-Qaeda and other extremist groups. In a way, the Muslim world on the whole, except for a few countries, was officially supporting the US and its war against Islamic extremist groups. There is therefore a general fear regarding Muslims and how may they create a threat for Americans within America. People generally believe that Muslims may harm them and therefore in order to avoid being harmed, Muslims should be labeled and wear bands so that they can be identified. There is a
Saturday, July 27, 2019
The Rental Apartment Agency Industry - Research Proposal Example In addition to apartment rentals, we will be providing additional services, which will not be considered our main services, such as car or limo rentals, student admission, translations, and immigration attorneys. We will be targeting people who are coming from the Middle East to start with, then we might expand the business to target a larger segment in the future. You can find more information about targeting and segmentation in the Segmentation section. According to the reports for the Texas medical centers, Ã¢â¬Å"The Texas Medical Center is the largest medical center in the world with one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science. The Texas Medical Center receives 160,000 daily visitors and over six million annual patient visits, including over 18,000 international patients.Ã¢â¬ These visitors would definitely need to find the right one or two-bedroom apartments to stay in. We conducted a site survey. Our sample was not too big, 50 Middle Eastern patients and 10 students, and we found the following results: The demand for this service is increasing every year. More patients and students from the Middle East are coming to Houston as mentioned previously because it has some of the best hospitals and schools in the world. The following figures show statistics about the number of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ families who come to Houston from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the Emirate and Kuwait who we managed to get from the consulates and the medical attaches offices. On the other hand, the supply is not great. There are very few new firms that enter this industry. Those who already exist are not providing good quality service or customer service, and they are met with too many complaints to be successful. Also, there is no single firm who can provide all of the many services that we are providing. (More information about competitors can be found in the Competitors section.)
Friday, July 26, 2019
Marketing in the Information Age for Specialty Record Music Store - Research Paper Example There exists a music store on Queen Street West in Toronto containing theme based CD's, records and DVD's. The collections are based on the cultural interests of the shop owners. The store does not have any online presence. Store enjoys reasonable amount of foot fall. But, due to the unorganized nature of the shop very few people actually buy the collection. As a matter of fact many people fail to locate the desired music collection due to unorganized nature of the shop. Due to the lack of online presence and hence losses customers to larger firms like HMV. The store owner also has 50% ownership of a local bar that specializes in in-house music.Based on the above the background thee study looks to provide a proposed marketing diagnostic plan. The plan includes the used of strategic and marketing concepts like AIDA model and SWOT analysis. The study also focuses on social media and viral marketing conceptsBased on the back ground of the study and the SWOT analysis it can be understood that the shop has entered in to a viscous circle. Customers are visiting the shop; but due to the organized nature of the shop, people are losing interests, People are switching to other firms like HMV through the online medium. Add to that the firm has no online presenceThe first step towards making the digital presence is to have a website. As mentioned earlier having a business without a website is like having a business without face. If the store owner does not have the expertise, then it can be outsourced to any SEO company
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Accounting Disclosures In Context Of Corporate Governance - Coursework Example Firstly, the framework of corporate governance should ensure that timely and accurate disclosures are made on all material matters. These matters relate to the financial situation of a company, its performance, ownership, and governance. This principle ensures that an entity will disclose all material information in its financial statements that will be used by shareholders or prospective clients to make decisions. Secondly, the corporate governance framework should ensure the strategic guidance of the company, the effective monitoring of management by the board and the board's accountability to the shareholders. This means that management will always be on their toes to ensure that the operations of the company are well coordinated since the board of directors monitors them. Hence, appropriate disclosures are likely to be made due to the oversight role of the board. In conclusion, the attempts that have been made to improve accounting disclosures have been beneficial to the business world. According to Oppermann, this is because; various stakeholders have attained their goals through appropriate disclosures. Through corporate governance, managers have taken more responsibility and accountability in their roles in businesses as well as the board of directors. In overall, the public has gained more confidence in financial information published by companies, as they are aware that disclosures have been made guided by corporate governance principles and the accounting standards.
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
The Supreme Court has held that the selection guidelines in the federal governments Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures also apply to performance measurement - Case Study Example Dana accused Mr. McGrory of discrimination on the basis of gender and sexual orientation. The Supreme Court found McGrory guilty for failing to cooperate with the attorney when he was required to provide a performance appraisal plan. Further, the court dismissed his appeal for wrongful dismissal and termed his claims unfounded. Performance management in the US is important in the employment sector as it provides the basis for employee evaluation. The employees are obliged to perform to the standards of the organization if they have to reserve their jobs. Performance management requires transparent guidelines on the measures of employee performance within an organization. As Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, & Wright (2011, p. 249) point out, the Supreme Court has held that the selection guidelines in the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures also apply to performance measurement. The idea of the Supreme Court is to ensure that performance management is conducted ethically to avoid issues of discrimination or wrongful dismissal of employees. The human resources must define a standard criterion for measuring performance within its organization to ensure that work assessment is conducted in a transparent manner. In the case above, the court found McGrory guilty of misconduct for his failure to provide a clear basis for regarding Dana as an efficient employee. When questioned by the court, he failed to provide a clear basis for performance management which he used as a reference in measuring the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. An unethical issue that emerged in this case is that the McGrory used other employees to assess the performance of Dana, which is against the guidelines provided by the Supreme Court (Lewis, 2013). According to the Supreme Court, employees should be assessed using the same selection guidelines that an organization uses. Therefore, it was probable that the employee complaining against DanaÃ¢â¬â¢s performance may have
Strengths Weaknesses And Changes Required At Ucell - Essay Example One of the things that need to be done is affecting of changes in UcellÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational structure in a manner that best serves the organization. Organization structure is the manner in which an organization arranges jobs and people in order for its work to be performed, as well as for its goals to be accomplished (Stonehouse & Houston, 2012: p34). In cases where the working group is small with frequent face-to-face communication that is frequent and where the formal structure is not necessary. However, in cases where the organization is larger, such as in UcellÃ¢â¬â¢s case, decisions in the organization will have to be made concerning the delegation of tasks. Therefore, procedures are established to assign responsibility for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s functions (Stonehouse & Houston, 2012: p35). These decisions are the ones that will determine the changes in the organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ structure.Ã One way to change the organizational structure would be through departmentaliz ation. Functional departmentalization involves the grouping of services that use similar resources, skills, and knowledge. The organization is based in most parts of the country and geographical departmentalization would aid in the restructuring of the company (Stonehouse & Houston, 2012: p37). In this case, would reap advantages by organizing their operations along geographic lines such that all activities that are performed in one region can be managed together. It would also be advantageous to carry out service departmentalization where activities, which are necessary for the production and marketing of similar services or single services, are grouped together. This would allow for considerable autonomy over the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, as CEO. In this case, the employees in the group are able to focus on needs of their line of services and become experts in distribution, development, and production. Departmentalization would also be done according to clients and markets.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Effect of Incentive Plans in attaining the Organizational Objectives - Essay Example Basically the organizational objectives are intended by group of people who belong to the organization. The incentive planning is one of the strategies of the organizations. The incentive is a sort of gainsharing, which is promoted with the intension of encouraging the employees so that they extend their cooperation and work. The incentive is nothing but sharing a certain amount of profit to the employees. This is expected to help reaching the organizational objectives. Let us consider a model incentive planning. The total amount decided to be shared as incentive per year is 1 million dollar. This should be paid as a compensation for the work done by the employee. This might include a group or team that has been considered under the bonus scheme. The over all percentage that has been left to be distributed among the selected group or team would cover some 10% from the total profit. Incentive should be divided according to the responsibilities carried by the employee. The employees who deserve the incentives are managers and middle managers, under whom they control a group of employees. For example managers of various departments such as accounts, marketing, production, maintenance etc. are required to reach the strategic level, in order to do that they manage the group of workers who work in their concerned department under them. Members of the organization keep these objectives in mind and work accordingly. An incentive planning help the objective keep going in its way uninterrupted by any kind of break in running the organization. The incentive could be defined in other words as proposing a deadline for the concerned employees, expecting them to reach specific or given milestones in the particular area or department.
Monday, July 22, 2019
IT Governance Essay A governance view that consists of the business governance of IT Ã¢â¬â ensuring that IT supports and enables the business strategy Ã¢â¬â and the functional governance of IT Ã¢â¬â ensuring that the IT function itself runs efficiently and effectively (http://www.takinggovernanceforward.org). Executive Summary Successful enterprises recognize the benefits of information technology and use it to drive their stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ value. These enterprises also understand and manage the associated risks, such as increasing regulatory compliance and critical dependence of many business processes on information technology (IT). The need for assurance about the value of IT, the management of IT-related risks and increased requirements for control over information are now understood as key elements of enterprise governance. Value, risk and control constitute the core of IT governance. Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (COBITÃ ®) provides good practices across a domain and process framework and presents activities in a manageable and logical structure. COBITÃ¢â¬â¢s good practices represent the consensus of experts. They are strongly focused more on control, less on execution. These practices will help optimize IT-enabled investments, ensure service delivery and provide a measure against which to judge when things do go wrong. For IT to be successful in delivering against business requirements, management should put an internal control system or framework in place. The COBIT control framework contributes to these needs by: * Making a link to the business requirements * Organizing IT activities into a generally accepted process model * Identifying the major IT resources to be leveraged * Defining the management control objectives to be considered An answer to these requirements of determining and monitoring the appropriate IT control and performance level is COBITÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of: * Benchmarking of IT process performance and capability, expressed as maturity models, derived from the Software Engineering InstituteÃ¢â¬â¢s Capability Maturity Model (CMM) * Goals and metrics of the IT processes to define and measure their outcome and performance based on the principles of Robert Kaplan and David NortonÃ¢â¬â¢s balanced business scorecard * Activity goals for getting these processes under control, based on COBITÃ¢â¬â¢s control objectives The assessment of process capability based on the COBIT maturity models is a key part of IT governance implementation. After identifying critical IT processes and controls, maturity modeling enables gaps in capability to be identified and demonstrated to management. Action plans can then be developed to bring these processes up to the desired capability target level. Thus, COBIT supports IT governance by providing a framework to ensure that: * IT is aligned with the business * IT enables the business and maximizes benefits * IT resources are used responsibly * IT risks are managed appropriately Figure 1 Adopted for this study Governance Focus Areas * Strategic alignment focuses on ensuring the linkage of business and IT plans; defining, maintaining and validating the IT value proposition; and aligning IT operations with enterprise operations. * Value delivery is about executing the value proposition throughout the delivery cycle, ensuring that IT delivers the promised benefits against the strategy, concentrating on optimizing costs and proving the intrinsic value of IT. * Resource management is about the optimal investment in, and the proper management of, critical IT resources: applications, information, infrastructure and people. Key issues relate to the optimization of knowledge and infrastructure. * Risk management requires risk awareness by senior corporate officers, a clear understanding of the enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s appetite for risk, understanding of compliance requirements, transparency about the significant risks to the enterprise and embedding of risk management responsibilities into the organization. * Performance measurement tracks and monitors strategy implementation, project completion, resource usage, process performance and service delivery, using, for example, balanced scorecards that translate strategy into action to achieve goals measurable beyond conventional accounting. COBIT Framework A control framework for IT governance defines the reasons IT governance is needed, the stakeholders and what it needs to accomplish. Why? Increasingly, top management is realizing the significant impact that information can have on the success of the enterprise. Management expects heightened understanding of the way IT is operated and the likelihood of its being leveraged successfully for competitive advantage. In particular, top management needs to know if information is being managed by the enterprise so that it is: * Likely to achieve its objectives * Resilient enough to learn and adapt * Judiciously managing the risks it faces * Appropriately recognizing opportunities and acting upon them Successful enterprises understand the risks and exploit the benefits of IT and find ways to deal with: * Aligning IT strategy with the business strategy * Assuring investors and shareholders that a Ã¢â¬Ëstandard of due careÃ¢â¬â¢ around mitigating IT risks is being met by the organization * Cascading IT strategy and goals down into the enterprise * Obtaining value from IT investments * Providing organizational structures that facilitate the implementation of strategy and goals * Creating constructive relationships and effective communication between the business and IT, and with external partners * Measuring ITÃ¢â¬â¢s performance Enterprises cannot deliver effectively against these business and governance requirements without adopting and implementing a governance and control framework for IT to: * Make a link to the business requirements * Make performance against these requirements transparent * Organize its activities into a generally accepted process model * Identify the major resources to be leveraged * Define the management control objectives to be considered Furthermore, governance and control frameworks are becoming a part of IT management good practice and are an enabler for establishing IT governance and complying with continually increasing regulatory requirements. IT good practices have become significant due to a number of factors: * Business managers and boards demanding a better return from IT investments, i.e., that IT delivers what the business needs to enhance stakeholder value * Concern over the generally increasing level of IT expenditure * The need to meet regulatory requirements for IT controls in areas such as privacy and financial reporting (e.g., the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Basel II) and in specific sectors such as finance, pharmaceutical and healthcare * The selection of service providers and the management of service outsourcing and acquisition * Increasingly complex IT-related risks, such as network security * IT governance initiatives that include adoption of control frameworks and good practices to help monitor and improve critical IT activities to increase business value and reduce business risk * The need to optimize costs by following, where possible, standardized, rather than specially developed, approaches * The growing maturity and consequent acceptance of well-regarded frameworks, such as COBIT, IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL), ISO 27000 series on information security-related standards, ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management SystemsÃ¢â¬âRequirements, Capability Maturity ModelÃ ® Integration (CMMI), Projects in Controlled Environments 2 (PRINCE2) and A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) * The need for enterprises to assess how they are performing against generally accepted standards and their peers (benchmarking) Who? A governance and control framework needs to serve a variety of internal and external stakeholders, each of whom has specific needs: * Stakeholders within the enterprise who have an interest in generating value from IT investments: * Those who make investment decisions * Those who decide about requirements * Those who use IT services * Internal and external stakeholders who provide IT services: * Those who manage the IT organization and processes * Those who develop capabilities * Those who operate the services * Internal and external stakeholders who have a control/risk responsibility: * Those with security, privacy and/or risk responsibilities * Those performing compliance functions * Those requiring or providing assurance services What? To meet the requirements listed in the previous section, a framework for IT governance and control should: * Provide a business focus to enable alignment between business and IT objectives * Establish a process orientation to define the scope and extent of coverage, with a defined structure enabling easy navigation of content * Be generally acceptable by being consistent with accepted IT good practices and standards and independent of specific technologies * Supply a common language with a set of terms and definitions that are generally understandable by all stakeholders * Help meet regulatory requirements by being consistent with generally accepted corporate governance standards (e.g., COSO) and IT controls expected by regulators and external auditors IT Resources The IT organization delivers against these goals by a clearly defined set of processes that use people skills and technology infrastructure to run automated business applications while leveraging business information. The IT resources identified in COBIT can be defined as follows: * Applications are the automated user systems and manual procedures that process the information. * Information is the data, in all their forms, input, processed and output by the information systems in whatever form is used by the business. * Infrastructure is the technology and facilities (i.e., hardware, operating systems, database management systems, networking, multimedia, and the environment that houses and supports them) that enable the processing of the applications. * People are the personnel required to plan, organize, acquire, implement, deliver, support, monitor and evaluate the information systems and services. They may be internal, outsourced or contracted as required. Processes To govern IT effectively, it is important to appreciate the activities and risks within IT that need to be managed. They are usually ordered into the responsibility domains of plan, build, run and monitor. The four interrelated domains of COBIT are: * Plan and Organize (PO)Ã¢â¬âProvides direction to solution delivery (AI) and service delivery (DS) * Acquire and Implement (AI)Ã¢â¬âProvides the solutions and passes them to be turned into services * Deliver and Support (DS)Ã¢â¬âReceives the solutions and makes them usable for end users * Monitor and Evaluate (ME)Ã¢â¬âMonitors all processes to ensure that the direction provided is followed Plan and organize (PO) This domain covers strategy and tactics, and concerns the identification of the way IT can best contribute to the achievement of the business objectives. The realization of the strategic vision needs to be planned, communicated and managed for different perspectives. A proper organization as well as technological infrastructure should be put in place. This domain typically addresses the following management questions: * Are IT and the business strategy aligned? * Is the enterprise achieving optimum use of its resources? * Does everyone in the organization understand the IT objectives? * Are IT risks understood and being managed? * Is the quality of IT systems appropriate for business needs? Acquire and implement (AI) To realize the IT strategy, IT solutions need to be identified, developed or acquired, as well as implemented and integrated into the business process. In addition, changes in and maintenance of existing systems are covered by this domain to make sure the solutions continue to meet business objectives. This domain typically addresses the following management questions: * Are new projects likely to deliver solutions that meet business needs? * Are new projects likely to be delivered on time and within budget? * Will the new systems work properly when implemented? * Will changes be made without upsetting current business operations? Deliver and support (DS) This domain is concerned with the actual delivery of required services, which includes service delivery, management of security and continuity, service support for users, and management of data and operational facilities. It typically addresses the following management questions: * Are IT services being delivered in line with business priorities? * Is IT costs optimized? * Is the workforce able to use the IT systems productively and safely? * Are adequate confidentiality, integrity and availability in place for information security? Monitor and evaluate (ME) All IT processes need to be regularly assessed over time for their quality and compliance with control requirements. This domain addresses performance management, monitoring of internal control, regulatory compliance and governance. It typically addresses the following management questions: * Is ITÃ¢â¬â¢s performance measured to detect problems before it is too late? * Does management ensure that internal controls are effective and efficient? * Can IT performance be linked back to business goals? * Are adequate confidentiality, integrity and availability controls in place for information security? Processes need Controls Control is defined as the policies, procedures, practices and organizational structures designed to provide reasonable assurance that business objectives will be achieved and undesired events will be prevented or detected and corrected. IT control objectives provide a complete set of high-level requirements to be considered by management for effective control of each IT process. They: * Are statements of managerial actions to increase value or reduce risk * Consist of policies, procedures, practices and organizational structures * Are designed to provide reasonable assurance that business objectives will be achieved and undesired events will be prevented or detected and corrected Enterprise management needs to make choices relative to these control objectives by: * Selecting those that are applicable * Deciding upon those that will be implemented * Choosing how to implement them (frequency, span, automation, etc.) * Accepting the risk of not implementing those that may apply The control objectives are identified by a two-character domain reference (PO, AI, DS and ME) plus a process number and a control objective number. In addition to the control objectives, each COBIT process has generic control requirements that are identified by PCn, for process control number. They should be considered together with the process control objectives to have a complete view of control requirements. PC1 Process Goals and Objectives Define and communicate specific, measurable, actionable, realistic, results-oriented and timely process goals and objectives for the effective execution of each IT process. Ensure that they are linked to the business goals and supported by suitable metrics. PC2 Process Ownership Assign an owner for each IT process, and clearly define the roles and responsibilities of the process owner. Include, for example, responsibility for process design, interaction with other processes, accountability for the end results, measurement of process performance and the identification of improvement opportunities. PC3 Process Repeatability Design and establish each key IT process such that it is repeatable and consistently produces the expected results. Provide for a logical but flexible and saleable sequence of activities that will lead to the desired results and is agile enough to deal with exceptions and emergencies. Use consistent processes, where possible, and tailor only when unavoidable. PC4 Roles and Responsibilities Define the key activities and end deliverables of the process. Assign and communicate unambiguous roles and responsibilities for effective and efficient execution of the key activities and their documentation as well as accountability for the process end deliverables. PC5 Policy, Plans and Procedures Define and communicate how all policies, plans and procedures that drive an IT process are documented, reviewed, maintained, approved, stored, communicated and used for training. Assign responsibilities for each of these activities and, at appropriate times, review whether they are executed correctly. Ensure that the policies, plans and procedures are accessible, correct, understood and up to date. PC6 Process Performance Improvement Identify a set of metrics that provides insight into the outcomes and performance of the process. Establish targets that reflect on the process goals and performance indicators that enable the achievement of process goals. Define how the data are to be obtained. Compare actual measurements to targets and take action upon deviations, where necessary. Align metrics, targets and methods with ITÃ¢â¬â¢s overall performance monitoring approach. Effective controls reduce risk, increase the likelihood of value delivery and improve efficiency because there will be fewer errors and a more consistent management approach. In addition, COBIT provides examples for each process that are illustrative, but not prescriptive or exhaustive, of: * Generic inputs and outputs * Activities and guidance on roles and responsibilities in a Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed (RACI) chart * Key activity goals (the most important things to do) * Metrics Business and it controls The enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s system of internal controls impacts IT at three levels: * At the executive management level, business objectives are set, policies are established and decisions are made on how to deploy and manage the resources of the enterprise to execute the enterprise strategy. The overall approach to governance and control is established by the board and communicated throughout the enterprise. The IT control environment is directed by this top-level set of objectives and policies. * At the business process level, controls are applied to specific business activities. Most business processes are automated and integrated with IT application systems, resulting in many of the controls at this level being automated as well. These controls are known as application controls. However, some controls within the business process remain as manual procedures, such as authorization for transactions, separation of duties and manual reconciliations. Therefore, controls at the business process level are a combination of manual controls operated by the business and automated business and application controls. Both are the responsibility of the business to define and manage, although the application controls require the IT function to support their design and development. * To support the business processes, IT provides IT services, usually in a shared service to many business processes, as many of the development and operational IT processes are provided to the whole enterprise, and much of the IT infrastructure is provided as a common service (e.g., networks, databases, operating systems and storage). The controls applied to all IT service activities are known as IT general controls. The reliable operation of these general controls is necessary for reliance to be placed on application controls. For example, poor change management could jeopardize (accidentally or deliberately) the reliability of automated integrity checks. Summary Establishing an effective governance framework includes defining organizational structures, processes, leadership, roles, and responsibilities to ensure that enterprise IT investments are aligned and delivered in accordance with enterprise strategies and objectives. Control over the process of providing IT governance that satisfies the business requirements for IT of integrating IT governance with corporate governance objectives and complying with laws, regulations and contracts. By focusing on preparing board reports on IT strategy, performance and risks, and responding to governance requirements in line with board directions. Achieved by * Establishing IT governance framework integrated into corporate governance * Obtaining independent assurance over the IT governance status. Measured by * Frequency of board reporting on IT to stakeholders (including maturity) * Frequency of reporting from IT to the board (including maturity) * Frequency of independent reviews of IT compliance References * Cobit 4.1 http://www.itgi.org * IT Governance Harvard University March 31, 2008 * Governance Objective and Governance views of IT (Mapping) http://www.takinggovernanceforward.org
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Effects of Cross-Cultural Exchange Cross-Cultural Exchange Alex Carr Cross-Cultural Exchange was a fundamental part of the development of societies. Through this form of exchange, societies were able to acquire knowledge from one and other, and upon doing so enrich their own cultures through studying abroad. When looking at the effects of cross-cultural exchange, there are many different aspects of study. Some of these aspects include, new foods being brought to different continents, cultures being shared, the use of old world traditions in new places which havent seen the likes of such before and the rise of empires through expansion. When looking at the spread of knowledge and culture throughout Europe, it is evident that this is very much a two-way process. One of the first examples of cross-cultural exchange, though not entirely out of choice to one culture, is the slave trade. Through the slave trade, there is for the first time, blacks in parts of the world which have never seen people of this colour before. Screens painted in Japan can be seen as another example of cross-cultural exchange, as these provide a glimpse of the first contact made in Japan by the Portuguese. Another major exchange of culture would of course be the spread of various religions throughout Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Christianity is the largest religion and has been spread by influential figures. The largest example of this would be the spread of Christianity over the Roman Empire when Constantine became Christian which happened in 313, so although this was very early in world history, nonetheless it was the foundation for Chris tianity in Europe. Christianity itself was founded in about 30 AD and was followed according to the teachings of Jesus Christ. Through the decline of the classical form of government which in empires was a monarchy, several factors contributed to the spread of the religions that can be seen throughout the world today. As previously seen throughout history most religions were regional, rather than national because it was much harder to travel, and spread the word of these religions unless preached by missionaries and such. Buddhism spread throughout India and Hinduism spread to several other areas of India. Hinduism had a profound influence on Southeast Asia. Christianity had the ability to grow in the Roman Empire and even beyond, it even found its way into the Middle East, and North Africa. Religion was, and still is possibly the most influential part of cross-cultural exchange, as it can bring nations together, or even apart. One of the most profound effects of cross-cultural exchange may very well be the introduction of different foods to all different parts of the world through the trade of different cultures foods. One of the most evident examples of this would be when Columbus returned from Spain in 1493, bringing with him things never before seen in Europe, such as horses, pigs, wheat, chickpeas, vegetable seeds, and fruit trees. This event sparked the trade between different continents, which allowed exotic foods to be imported. The exchange of different foods is an essential part of life, as these caused drastic changes in the usual staple foods of different countries. An example of this is tomatoes in Italy, now a staple food but once only found in the valleys of Mexico. Another major example of how essential the exchange of food is would be corn. Corn was originally from Cuba, there Columbus discovered its many uses, and corn spread through the world. Corn became the main source of food on slave ships. Another crop that quickly became a very prominent food in the European diet was the potato. They were grown on land not suitable for other crops, and cheap to grow. They quickly became cheap food for inmates and other impoverished areas. One major way that foods are spread throughout different countries is of course through immigration. This is very evident in Canada, because the country is so ethnically diverse; there can be foods from all over the world seen in Canada. Canada is a very good example of cross-cultural exchange because of the diversity that is there which has been created through their very open immigration system, which does not discriminate according to race. Many different religions are seen in Canada, foods from all over the world, a vast number of different races, all living together in one place, all because of cross-cultural exchange and more specifically immigration. The expansion of empires in the western world was a very good example of cross-cultural exchange, as the colonies were heavily influenced by their homelands. As these new colonies were formed, religion once again played a major role in the formation of these colonies. The religion was once again of course Christianity. Early Christian philosopher St Augustine once preached Ã¢â¬Å"regardless of colour, all people were Gods creation.Ã¢â¬ This is an interesting quote, as history proves that blacks were clearly exploited, and not created as equals. There is also the use of old world traditions in new colonies, some of which arent still popular in their countries of origin, but still to date find their daily use in the colonies now formed into independent countries. An example of this would be an old tradition which is that women whose husbands have died must wear black to mourn dates back to at least the Roman Empire. This tradition was brought from the Roman Empire into America and o ther countries and is a tradition which is still used on a daily basis to date. This is just one example of how cross-cultural exchange had such a large effect on the world, dating back to the Roman Empire, and still in effect today. Another prominent example is Quebec, which was originally a colony of France. Quebec became a colony of France as early as 1608, and remained so until 1867 when it joined confederation. Quebec is a French speaking province and holds many traditions brought over from France. The French that is spoken in Quebec itself is not the same as in France, but is actually slightly skewed, this is an example of how there is cross-cultural exchange. Although settlers came from France, the culture is slightly different because although old traditions were inherited, new ones were also formed, according to the new lifestyle that was being lived in Quebec. The French culture in Quebec is still very heavily preserved to date and even to such a degree that Quebec does no t feel a part of Canada and would like to separate from Canada. Colonialism very much ties in with the expansion of empires, because colonialism is basically the spread of nations into new countries. Colonialism is a good example of cross-cultural exchange because when new colonies are founded, they bring not only the traditions and culture from their homeland, but also bring new cultures from immigrants of other countries, which helps to build a much more culturally diverse country ultimately. Through the spread of exotic foods, traditions of old countries newly expanded empires, and new insightful religions cross-cultural exchange has proven to be an essential part of the development of the modern world. Without the profound effects of cross-cultural exchange the current world, as diverse as it is may not exist. Cross-cultural exchange has taught the civilization of earth many lessons about all aspects of life, most of which have been learned from and help the world to progress in a positive direction.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Biography of the Beatles Music Analysis: The Beatles Introduction So much has been said and written about the Beatles and their story is so mythic in its sweep that it is difficult to summarize their career without restating clichÃ ©s that have already been digested by tens of millions of rock fans. To start with the obvious, they were the greatest and most influential act of the rock era, and introduced more innovations into popular music than any other rock band of the 20th century. Moreover, they were among the few artists of any discipline that were simultaneously the best at what they did, and the most popular at what they did. Relentlessly imaginative and experimental, the Beatles grabbed a hold of the international mass consciousness in 1964 and never let go for the next six years, always staying ahead of the pack in terms of creativity, but never losing their ability to communicate their increasingly sophisticated ideas to a mass audience. Ã¢â¬Å"Their supremascy as rock icons remains unchallenged to this day, decades after their breakup in 1970.Ã¢â¬ (Jansen, Lloyd 2005) Even when couching praise in specific terms, it is hard to convey the scope of the Beatles achievements in a mere paragraph or two. They synthesized all that was good about early rock roll, and changed it into something original and even more exciting. They established the prototype for the self-contained rock group that wrote and performed their own material. As composers, their craft and melodic inventiveness were second to none, and key to the evolution of rock from its blues/RB-based forms into a style that was far more eclectic, but equally visceral. As singers, both John Lennon and Paul McCartney were among the best and most expressive vocalists in rock; the groups harmonies were intricate and exhilarating. Ã¢â¬Å"As performers, they were exciting and photogenic; when they retreated into the studio, they were instrumental in pioneering advanced techniques and multi-layered arrangements.Ã¢â¬ (Jansen, 2005) They were also the first British rock group to achieve worldwide prominence, launching a British Invasion that made rock truly an international phenomenon. History More than any other top group, the Beatles success was very much a case of the sum being greater than the parts. Their phenomenal cohesion was due in large degree to most of the group having known each other and played together in Liverpool for about five years before they began to have hit records. Guitarist and teenage rebel John Lennon got hooked on rock roll in the mid 1950s, and formed a band, the Quarrymen, at his high school. Around mid-1957, the Quarrymen were joined by another guitarist, Paul McCartney, nearly two years Lennons junior. A bit later they were joined by another guitarist, George Harrison, a friend of McCartneys. Ã¢â¬Å"The Quarrymen would change lineups constantly in the late 50s, eventually reducing to the core trio of guitarists, whod proven themselves to be the best musicians and most personally compatible individuals within the band.Ã¢â¬ (Turkalo, David M 1990) The Quarrymen changed their name to the Silver Beatles in 1960, quickly dropping the Silver to become just the Beatles. Lennons art college friend Stuart Sutcliffe joined on bass, but finding a permanent drummer was a vexing problem until Pete Best joined in the summer of 1960. He successfully auditioned for the combo just before they left for a several-month stint in Hamburg, Germany. Hamburg was the Beatles baptism by fire. Playing grueling sessions for hours on end in one of the most notorious red-light districts in the world, the group was forced to expand their repertoire, tighten up their chops, and invest their show with enough manic energy to keep the rowdy crowds satisfied. When they returned to Liverpool at the end of 1960, the band was suddenly the most exciting act on the local circuit. They consolidated their following in 1961 with constant gigging in the Merseyside area, most often at the legendary Cavern Club, the incubator of the Merseybeat sound. They also returned for engagements in Hamburg during 1961, although Sutcliffe dropped out of the band that year to concentrate on his art school studies there. McCartney took over on bass, Harrison settled in as lead guitarist, and Lennon had rhythm guitar; everyone sang. In mid-1961, the Beatles made their first recordings in Germany, as a backup group to a British rock guitarist/singer based in Hamburg, Tony Sheridan. The Beatles hadnt fully developed at this point, and these recordings many of which (including a couple of Sheridan-less tracks) were issued only after the bands rise to fame found their talents in a most embryonic state. The Hamburg stint was also notable for gaining the Beatles sophisticated, artistic fans such as Sutcliffes girlfriend, Astrid Kirchherr, who influenced all of them (except Best) to restyle their quiffs in the moptops that gave the musicians their most distinctive visual trademark. Near the end of 1961, the Beatles exploding local popularity caught the attention of local record store manager Brian Epstein, who was soon managing the band as well. He used his contacts to swiftly acquire a January 1, 1962, audition at Decca Records that has been heavily bootlegged (some tracks were officially released in 1995). After weeks of deliberation, Decca turned them down, as did several other British labels. Epsteins perseverance was finally rewarded with an audition for producer George Martin at Parlophone, an EMI subsidiary; Martin signed the Beatles in mid-1962. By this time, Epstein was assiduously grooming his charges for national success by influencing them to smarten up their appearance, dispensing with their leather jackets and trousers in favor of tailored suits and ties. One more major change was in the offing before the Beatles made their Parlophone debut. In August 1962, drummer Pete Best was kicked out of the group, a controversial decision that has been the cause of much speculation since. Ã¢â¬Å"There is still no solid consensus as to whether it was because of his solitary, moody nature; the other Beatles jealousy of his popularity with the fans; his musical shortcomings (George Martin had already told Epstein that Best wasnt good enough to drum on recordings); or his refusal to wear his hair in bangs.Ã¢â¬ (Turkalo, 1990) What seems most likely was that the Beatles simply found his personality incompatible, preferring to enlist Ringo Starr (born Richard Starkey), drummer with another popular Merseyside outfit, Rory Storm the Hurricanes. Starr had been in the Beatles for a few weeks when they recorded their first single, Love Me Do/P.S. I Love You, in September 1962. Both sides of the 45 were Lennon-McCartney originals, and the songwriting team would be credited with most of the groups material throughout the Beatles career. The single, a promising but fairly rudimentary effort, hovered around the lower reaches of the British Top 20. The Beatles phenomenon didnt truly kick in until Please Please Me, which topped the British charts in early 1963. This was the prototype British Invasion single: an infectious melody, charging guitars, and positively exuberant harmonies. The same traits were evident on their third 45, From Me to You (a British number one), and their debut LP, Please Please Me. Although it was mostly recorded in a single day, Please Please Me topped the British charts for an astonishing 30 weeks, establishing the group as the most popular rock roll act ever seen in the U.K. What the Beatles had done was to take the best elements of the rock and pop they loved and make them their own. Since the Quarrymen days, they had been steeped in the classic early rock of Elvis, Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Carl Perkins, and the Everly Brothers; theyd also kept an ear open to the early 60s sounds of Motown, Phil Spector, and the girl groups. What they added was an unmatched songwriting savvy, a brash guitar-oriented attack, wildly enthusiastic vocals, and the embodiment of the youthful flair of their generation, ready to dispense with postwar austerity and claim a culture of their own. They were also unsurpassed in their eclecticism, willing to borrow from blues, popular standards, gospel, folk, or whatever seemed suitable for their musical vision. Producer George Martin was the perfect foil for the group, refining their ideas without tinkering with their cores; during the last half of their career, he was indispensable for his ability to translate their concepts into arrangements that required complex orchestration, innovative applications of recording technology, and an ever-widening array of instruments. Just as crucially, the Beatles were never ones to stand still and milk formulas. All of their subsequent albums and singles would show remarkable artistic progression. Even on their second LP, With the Beatles (1963), it was evident that their talents as composers and instrumentalists were expanding furiously, as they devised ever more inventive melodies and harmonies, and boosted the fullness of their arrangements. She Loves You and I Want to Hold Your Hand established the group not just as a popular music act, but as a phenomenon never before seen in the British entertainment business, as each single sold over a million copies in the U.K. After some celebrated national TV appearances, Beatlemania broke out across the British Isles in late 1963, the group generating screams and hysteria at all of their public appearances, musical or otherwise. Capitol, which had first refusal of the Beatles recordings in the United States, had declined to issue the groups first few singles, which ended up appearing on relatively small American independents. Capitol took up its option on I Want to Hold Your Hand, which stormed to the top of the U.S. charts within weeks of its release on December 26, 1963. The Beatles television appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show in February of 1964 launched Beatlemania (and the entire British Invasion) on an even bigger scale than it had reached in Britain. In the first week of April 1964, the Beatles had the Top Five best-selling singles in the U.S.; they also had the first two slots on the album charts, as well as other entries throughout the Billboard Top 100. No one had ever dominated the market for popular music so heavily; its doubtful that anyone ever will again. The Beatles themselves would continue to reach number one with most of their singles and albums until their 1970 breakup. Ã¢â¬Å"Hard as it may be to believe today, the Beatles were often dismissed by cultural commentators of the time as nothing more than a fad that would vanish within months as the novelty wore off.Ã¢â¬ (Turkalo, 1990) The group ensured this wouldnt happen by making A Hard Days Night in early 1964, a cinÃ ©ma vÃ ©ritÃ ©-style motion picture comedy/musical that cemented their image as the Fab Four: happy-go-lucky, individualistic, cheeky, funny lads with nonstop energy. The soundtrack was also a triumph, consisting entirely of Lennon-McCartney tunes, including such standards as the title tune, And I Love Her, If I Fell, Cant Buy Me Love, and Things We Said Today. George Harrisons resonant 12-string electric guitar leads were hugely influential; the movie helped persuade the Byrds, then folk singers, to plunge all-out into rock roll, and the Beatles (along with Bob Dylan) would be hugely influential on the folk-rock explosion of 1965. The Beatles success, too, had begun to open the U.S. market for fellow Brits like the Rolling Stones, the Animals, and the Kinks, and inspired young American groups like the Beau Brummels, Lovin Spoonful, and others to mount a challenge of their own with self-penned material that owed a great debt to Lennon-McCartney. Significance Between riotous international tours in 1964 and 1965, the Beatles continued to squeeze out more chart-topping albums and singles. In retrospect, critics have judged Beatles for Sale (late 1964) and Help! (mid-1965) as the bands least impressive efforts. To some degree, thats true. Touring and an insatiable market placed heavy demands upon their songwriting, and some of the originals and covers on these records, while brilliant by many groups standards, were filler in the context of the Beatles best work. But when at the top of their game, the group was continuing to push forward. I Feel Fine had feedback and brilliant guitar leads; Ticket to Ride showed the band beginning to incorporate the ringing, metallic, circular guitar lines that would be appropriated by bands like the Byrds; Help! was their first burst of confessional lyricism; Yesterday employed a string quartet. John Lennon in particular was beginning to exhibit a Dylanesque influence in his songwriting on such folky, downbeat numbers as Im a Loser and Youve Got to Hide Your Love Away. And tracks like I Dont Want to Spoil the Party and Ive Just Seen a Face had a strong country flavor. Ã¢â¬Å"Although the Beatles second film, Help!, was a much sillier and less sophisticated affair than their first feature, it too was a huge commercial success. By this time, though, the Beatles had nothing to prove in commercial terms; the remaining frontiers were artistic challenges that could only be met in the studio.Ã¢â¬ (Jansen, 2000) They rose to the occasion at the end of 1965 with Rubber Soul, one of the classic folk-rock records. Lyrically, Lennon, McCartney, and even Harrison were evolving beyond boy-girl scenarios into complex, personal feelings. They were also pushing the limits of studio rock by devising new guitar and bass textures, experimenting with distortion and multi-tracking, and using unconventional instruments like the sitar. As much of a progression as Rubber Soul was relative to their previous records, it was but a taster for the boundary-shattering outings of the next few years. The Paperback Writer/Rain single found the group abandoning romantic themes entirely, boosting the bass to previously unknown levels, and fooling around with psychedelic imagery and backwards tapes on the B-side. Drugs were fueling their already fertile imaginations, but they felt creatively hindered by their touring obligations. Revolver, released in the summer of 1966, proved what the group could be capable of when allotted months of time in the studio. Hazy hard guitars and thicker vocal arrangements formed the bed of these increasingly imagistic, ambitious lyrics; the groups eclecticism now encompassed everything from singalong novelties (Yellow Submarine) and string quartet-backed character sketches (Eleanor Rigby) to Indian-influenced swirls of echo and backwards tapes (Tomorrow Never Knows). Some would complain that the Beatles had abandoned the earthy rock of their roots for clever mannerism. But Revolver, like virtually all of the groups singles and albums from She Loves You on, would be a worldwide chart-topper. Influence For the past couple of years, live performance had become a rote exercise for the group, tired of competing with thousands of screaming fans that drowned out most of their voices and instruments. A 1966 summer worldwide tour was particularly grueling: the groups entourage was physically attacked in the Philippines after a perceived snub of the countrys queen, and a casual remark by John Lennon about the Beatles being bigger than Jesus Christ was picked up in the States, resulting in the burning of Beatle records in the Bible belt and demands for a repentant apology. Their final concert of that American tour (in San Francisco on August 29, 1966) would be their last in front of a paying audience, as the group decided to stop playing live in order to concentrate on their studio recordings. This was a radical and unprecedented step in 1966, and the media was rife with speculation that the act was breaking up, especially after all four spent late 1966 engaged in separate personal and artistic pursuits. The appearance of the Penny Lane/Strawberry Fields Forever single in February 1967 squelched these concerns. Frequently cited as the strongest double A-side ever, the Beatles were now pushing forward into unabashedly psychedelic territory in their use of orchestral arrangements and Mellotron, without abandoning their grasp of memorable melody and immediately accessible lyrical messages. Sgt. Pepper, released in June 1967 as the Summer of Love dawned, was the definitive psychedelic soundtrack. Or, at least, so it was perceived at the time: subsequent critics have painted the album as an uneven affair, given a conceptual unity via its brilliant multi-tracked overdubs, singalong melodies, and fairy tale-ish lyrics. Others remain convinced, as millions did at the time, that it represented pops greatest triumph, or indeed an evolution of pop into art with a capital A. Ã¢â¬Å"In addition to mining all manner of roots influences, the musicians were also picking up vibes from Indian music, avant-garde electronics, classical, music hall, and more. When the Beatles premiered their hippie anthem All You Need Is Love as part of a worldwide TV broadcast, they had been truly anointed as spokespersons for their generation , and it seemed they could do no wrong.Ã¢â¬ (Jansen, 2000) Musically, that would usually continue to be the case, but the groups strength began to unravel at a surprisingly quick pace. In August 1967, Brian Epstein prone to suicidal depression over the past year died of a drug overdose, leaving them without a manager. The group pressed on with their next film project, Magical Mystery Tour, directed by themselves; lacking focus or even basic professionalism, the picture bombed when it was premiered on BBC television in December 1967, giving the media the first real chance theyd ever had to roast the Beatles over a flame. In early 1968, the Beatles decamped to India for a course in transcendental meditation with the Maharishi; this too became something of a media embarrassment, as each of the four would eventually depart the course before its completion. The Beatles did use their unaccustomed peace in India to compose a wealth of new material. Judged solely on musical merit, The White Album, a double LP released in late 1968, was a triumph. While largely abandoning their psychedelic instruments to return to guitar-based rock, they maintained their whimsical eclecticism, proving themselves masters of everything from blues-rock to vaudeville. As individual songwriters, too, it contains some of their finest work (as does the brilliant non-LP single from this era, Hey Jude/Revolution). The problem, at least in terms of the groups long-term health, was that these were very much individual songs, as opposed to collective ones. Lennon and McCartney had long composed most of their tunes separately (you can almost always tell the composer by the lead vocalist). But they had always fed off of each other not only to supply missing bits and pieces that would bring a song to completion, but to provide a competitive edge that would bring out the best in the other. McCartneys romantic melodicism and Lennons more acidic, gritty wit were perfect complements for one another. By the White Album, it was clear that each member was more concerned with his own expression than that of the collective group: a natural impulse, but one that was bound to lead to difficulties. In addition, George Harrison was becoming a more prolific and skilled composer as well, imbuing his own melodies (which were nearly the equal of those of his more celebrated colleagues) with a cosmic lightness. Harrison was beginning to resent his junior status, and the group began to bicker more openly in the studio. Ringo Starr, whose solid drumming and good nature could usually be counted upon (as was evident in his infrequent lead vocals), actually quit for a couple of weeks in the midst of the White Album sessions (though the media was unaware of this at the time). Personal interests were coming into play as well: Lennons devotion to romantic and artistic pursuits with his new girlfriend Yoko Ono was diverting his attentions from the Beatles. Apple Records, started by the group earlier in 1968 as a sort of utopian commercial enterprise, was becoming a financial and organisational nightmare. These werent the ideal conditions under which to record a new album in January 1969, especially when McCartney was pushing the group to return to live performing, although none of the others seemed especially keen on the idea. They did agree to try and record a back-to-basics, live-in-the-studio-type LP, the sessions being filmed for a television special. That plan almost blew up when Harrison, in the midst of tense arguments, left the group for a few days. Although he returned, the idea of playing live concerts was put on the back burner; Harrison enlisted American soul keyboardist Billy Preston as kind of a fifth member on the sessions, both to beef up the arrangements and to alleviate the uncomfortable atmosphere. Ã¢â¬Å"Exacerbating the problem was that the Beatles didnt have a great deal of first-class new songs to work with, although some were excellent. In order to provide a suitable concert-like experience for the film, the group did climb the roof of their Apple headquarters in London to deliver an impromptu performance on January 30, 1969, before the police stopped it; this was their last live concert of any sort.Ã¢â¬ (Jansen, 2000) Generally dissatisfied with these early-1969 sessions, the album and film at first titled Get Back, and later to emerge as Let It Be remained in the can as the group tried to figure out how the projects should be mixed, packaged, and distributed. A couple of the best tracks, Get Back/Dont Let Me Down, were issued as a single in the spring of 1969. By this time, the Beatles quarrels were intensifying in a dispute over management: McCartney wanted their affairs to be handled by his new father-in-law, Lee Eastman, while the other members of the group favored a tough American businessman, Allen Klein. It was something of a miracle, then, that the final album recorded by the group, Abbey Road, was one of their most unified efforts. It certainly boasted some of their most intricate melodies, harmonies, and instrumental arrangements; it also heralded the arrival of Harrison as a composer of equal talent to Lennon and McCartney, as George wrote the albums two most popular tunes, Something and Here Comes the Sun. The Beatles were still progressing, but it turned out to be the end of the road, as their business disputes continued to magnify. Lennon, who had begun releasing solo singles and performing with friends as the Plastic Ono Band, threatened to resign in late 1969, although he was dissuaded from making a public announcement. Most of the early-1969 tapes remained unreleased, partially because the footage for the planned television broadcast of these sessions was now going to be produced as a documentary movie. The accompanying soundtrack album, Let It Be, was delayed so that its release could coincide with that of the film. Lennon, Harrison, and Allen Klein decided to have celebrated American producer Phil Spector record some additional instrumentation and do some mixing. Thus the confusion that persists among most rock listeners to this day: Let It Be, although the last Beatles album to be released, was not the last one to be recorded. Abbey Road should actually be considered as the Beatles last album; most of the material on Let It Be, including the title track (which would be the last single released while the group was still together), was recorded several months before the Abbey Road sessions began in earnest, and a good 15 months or so before its May 1970 release. By that time, the Beatles were no more. In fact, there had been no recording done by the group as a unit since August 1969, and each member of the band had begun to pursue serious outside professional interests independently via the Plastic Ono Band, Harrisons tour with Delaney Bonnie, Starrs starring role in the Magic Christian film, or McCartneys first solo album. The outside world for the most part remained almost wholly unaware of the seriousness of the groups friction, making it a devastating shock for much of the worlds youth when McCartney announced that he was leaving the Beatles on April 10, 1970. The final blow, apparently, was the conflict between the release dates of Let It Be and McCartneys debut solo album. The rest of the group asked McCartney to delay his release until after Let It Be; McCartney refused, and for good measure, was distressed by Spectors post-production work on Let It Be, particularly the string overdubs on The Long and Winding Road, which became a posthumous Beatles single that spring. Although McCartney received much of the blame for the split, it should be remembered that he had done more than any other member to keep the group going since Epsteins death, and that each of the other Beatles had threatened to leave well before McCartneys departure. With hindsight, the breakup seemed inevitable in view of their serious business disagreements and the growth of their individual interests. As bitter as the initial headlines were to swallow, the feuding would grow much worse over the next few years. At the end of 1970, McCartney sued the rest of the Beatles in order to dissolve their partnership; the battle dragged through the courts for years, scotching any prospects of a group reunion. In any case, each member of the band quickly established viable solo careers. In fact, at the outset it could have been argued that the artistic effects of the split were in some ways beneficial, freeing Lennon and Harrison to make their most uncompromising artistic statements (Plastic Ono Band and All Things Must Pass). Georges individual talents in particular received acclaim that had always eluded him when he was overshadowed by Lennon-McCartney. Paul had a much rougher time with the critics, but continued to issue a stream of hit singles, hitting a commercial and critical jackpot at the end of 1973 with the massively successful Band on the Run. Ringo did not have the songwriting acumen to compete on the same level as the others, yet he too had quite a few big hit singles in the early 70s, often benefiting from the assistance of his former band-mates. Yet within a short time, it became apparent both that the Beatles were not going to settle their differences and reunite, and that their solo work could not compare with what they were capable of creating together. The stereotype has it that the split allowed each of them to indulge in their worst tendencies to their extremes: Lennon in agit-prop, Harrison in holier-than-thou-mysticism, McCartney in cutesy pop, Starr in easy listening rock. Theres a good deal of truth in this, but its also important to bear in mind that what was most missing was a sense of group interaction. The critical party line often champions Lennon as the angry, realist rocker, and McCartney as the melodic balladeer, but this is a fallacy: each of them were capable, in roughly equal measures, of ballsy all-out rock and sweet romanticism. What is not in dispute is that they sparked each other to reach heights that they could not attain on their own. Despite periodic rumours of reunions throughout the 1970s, no group projects came close to materializing. It should be added that the Beatles themselves continued to feud to some degree, and from all evidence werent seriously interested in working together as a unit. Any hopes of a reunion vanished when Lennon was assassinated in New York City in December 1980. The Beatles continued their solo careers throughout the 1980s, but their releases became less frequent, and their commercial success gradually diminished, as listeners without first-hand memories of the combo created their own idols. The popularity of the Beatles-as-unit, however, proved eternal. In part, this is because the groups 1970 split effectively short-circuited the prospects of artistic decline; the body of work that was preserved was uniformly strong. However, its also because, like any great works of art, the Beatles records carried an ageless magnificence that continues to captivate new generations of listeners. So it is that Beatles records continue to be heard on radio in heavy rotation, continue to sell in massive quantities, and continue to be covered and quoted by rock and pop artists through the present day. Legal wrangles at Apple prevented the official issue of previously unreleased Beatle material for over two decades (although much of it was frequently bootlegged). The situation finally changed in the 1990s, after McCartney, Harrison, Starr, and Lennons widow Yoko Ono settled their principal business disagreements. In 1994, this resulted in a double CD of BBC sessions from the early and mid-60s. The following year, a much more ambitious project was undertaken: a multi-part film documentary, broadcast on network television in 1995, and then released (with double the length) for the home video market in 1996, with the active participation of the surviving Beatles. To coincide with the Anthology documentary, three double CDs of previously unreleased/rare material were issued in 1995 and 1996. Additionally, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr (with some assistance from Jeff Lynne) embellished a couple of John Lennon demos from the 1970s with overdubs to create two new tracks (Free as a Bird and Real Love) that were billed as actual Beatles recordings. Whether this constitutes the actual long-awaited reunion is the subject of much debate. Certainly these cuts were hardly classics on par with the music the group made in the 1960s. Some fans, even diehards, were inclined to view the whole Anthology project as a distinctly 1990s marketing exercise that maximized the mileage of whatever could be squeezed from the Beatles vaults. If nothing else, though, the massive commercial success of outtakes that had, after all, been recorded 25 to 30 years ago, spoke volumes about the unabated appeal and fascination the Beatles continue to exert worldwide. Revolution song Analysis Revolution is a song by The Beatles, written primarily by John Lennon and attributed to Lennon-McCartney. Ã¢â¬Å"The song appeared in two distinctly different incarnations, a raucous electric Revolution, and a slowed acoustic Revolution 1. A third connected piece, the heavily experimental Revolution 9, appeared on the same album side (i.e., side 4) as Revolution 1 on The White Album.Ã¢â¬ (Corliss, 2004) Lennon claimed the song was inspired by the May 1968 uprising in France. Another song called Revolution was released by the London psychedelic group Tomorrow in September 1967, a year before the John Lennon song. Tomorrows lyric Have your own little revolution, NOW! contrasts with Lennons lyric, including the opening lines, You say you want a revolution/ Well, you know/ We all want to change the world. There is a belief that in some studio versions of the song, the pronunciation of evolution early in the song has what sounds like an overdubbed voice distorting evolution into what sounds eerily similar to evil-jew-shin. A common myth is that Lennon wrote the track in disdain of overwhelming money-hungry businessmen. This theme of anti-semitism is not alone in this song, as in Come Together the verse verse can be interpreted as describing a hasidic jew. Revolution 9 is an experimental recording which appeared on the Beatles 1968 self-titled LP release (known as the White Album). The track marked the peak of the bands studio experimentation; the inclusion of such a sound collage or musique concrÃ ¨te on a pop music release was virtually unprecedented. The recording began as an extended ending to the album version of Revolution, to which were added vocal and music sound clips, tape loops, and sound effects influenced by t