Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to a Essays

Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to a Essays Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to any activity that involves more than one country, for example, travel from one country to another. The dramatic increase in transnational travel in recent years has sparked controversy over the potential impacts of this trend on individual countriesf especially those new member states of globalization. Some people are concerned that the upsurge in new arrivals will prompt local hostility against visitors instead of promoting their understanding on mutual cultura l background. This notion should be rejected as one can see many facts in favor of this development between countries. The first reason why international travels would never bring conflict is rooted in the fact that both visitors and locals are economically motivated. International travel opens up opportunities for business development throughout the wor l d. Entrepreneurs are interested not only in the domestic market but also in the oversea market. Foreigners should learn the culture of a country before winning over the local people. In turn, locals should show their hospitality to visitors in exchange for their trust. They share a view that acceptance of each other's cultural background is a necessary condition for cooperation. Understanding a cu lt ure has other implications. Differences in social background, cultural values and religious belief might make the discrepancy of foreigners and local inhabitants on some issues indelible; however, the higher interaction, the higher level of communication and understanding. Arabians, for example, used to consider westerners as their f oes. Now they have concrete relations with their western allies in many fields. In the initial stage, their divergence seemed inherent but over time, wi t h better mu tual understanding, they take the same position on many issues. Undeniably, it is likely that in some resorts, foreign visitors repel the local community with their s cant regard for the local environment and conventions when they first arrive. However, it should be noted that most offense is accidental, rather than intentional. Instead, visitors disobey rules and conventions simply because they have no knowledge of them. This situation is expected to be improved with the passing of time when visitors from different countries increase their knowledge of a local culture. According to the above analysis, we can observe that the increase in the international travel should not be taken as the cause of any conflict that arises between two countries. Alternatively, one should recogni z e its role in improving mutual understanding between two countries .

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives

The Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives This exercise will give you practice in effectively using the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. InstructionsComplete each sentence below with the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the adjective in italics. When youre done, compare your answers with those on page two. Her voice, which was always soft and melodious, was even _____ and sweeter than usual.All four boys were uncommonly lazy, but Jimbo was the _____ of them all.Of all the silly things people said toward the end of the twentieth century, perhaps the _____ came from the author who declared the end of history. Bright stars filled the night sky, but there was one star that was larger and _____ than the others.A loud voice is needed to command attention, but the _____ voice in the room seldom belongs to the most effective leader.Working in a library may not seem very interesting to most people, but Maggie believed that she had the _____ job in the world.My grandpa told a good joke, but I told a _____ one.Our final exam was difficult, far _____ than I had expected.Terry went directly to the shelf filled with cheap toys and picked out the _____ one he could find.Andrew didnt think the joke was very funny, but after Karen explained it, he laughed like it was the _____ joke he had ever heard.I made up a story about a beautiful bird that sang the _____ song ever heard. Gandalf says that the ring is dangerous, far _____ than anyone can imagine.You own many ugly sweaters, but this one has to be the _____ sweater in the world. Below (in bold) are the answers to the Exercise in Using the Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives. Her voice, which was always soft and melodious, was even softer and sweeter than usual.All four boys were uncommonly lazy, but Jimbo was the laziest of them all.Of all the silly things people said toward the end of the twentieth century, perhaps the silliest came from the author who declared the end of history.Bright stars filled the night sky, but there was one star that was larger and brighter than the others.A loud voice is needed to command attention, but the loudest voice seldom belongs to the most effective leader.Working in a library may not seem very interesting to most people, but Maggie believed that she had the most interesting job in the world.My grandpa told a good joke, but I told a better one.Our final exam was difficult, far more difficult than I had expected.Terry went directly to the shelf filled with cheap toys and picked out the cheapest one he could find.Andrew didnt think the joke was very funny, but after Karen explained it, he laughed like it was the funniest joke he had ever heard. I made up a story about a beautiful bird that sang the most beautiful song ever heard.Gandalf says that the ring is dangerous, far more dangerous than anyone can imagine.You own many  ugly  sweaters, but this one has to be the ugliest sweater in the world.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Law,politics,and constitutional government as the distinguishing Essay

Law,politics,and constitutional government as the distinguishing characteristics of western civilization - Essay Example This important question has been discussed for several centuries. Western Civilization has evolved from the colonial period to the present era of much more equality among nations.How have law, politics, and constitutional government contributed to this evolution?First, we must define our terms. By â€Å"law† we mean the rule of law, a basic principle of Western Civilization. The concept refers to a system of well-established and clear principles and precepts which each nation follows. Laws regulate the conduct of the nation towards its own citizens as well as towards other nations and their citizens. This legal framework has also come to include international law, which governs the broader issues which arise among nations. (Gozzi, Gustavo, History of International Law and Western Civilization, April 20, 2007;.http://ssrn.com/abstract=996239) It is sometimes said that Western Civilization relies on the rule of law rather than the rule of men. Of course, men and women must still administer the laws, but the point is that the laws are to be applied fairly, uniformly, and consistently. One’s station in life, wealth, family background and similar factors should not affect or influence the way one is treated under the law. This approach is a major departure from such past systems as feudalism, where serfs did not have legal rights. Similarly, the system of slavery deprived the slaves of any requirements of fair treatment from their masters; they were essentially property. 2 The rule of law has been said to have begun with the Magna Carta in England, which established limits on the absolute power of the monarchy. It required many centuries for that approach to spread to other Western nations and for it to be enforced impartially. Even today, we have not yet achieved the goal of full equal treatment under the law. The evolution of internal and international law is continuing, and remains a major contributing factor to Western Civilization. Politics must also be defined for purposes of its relationship to Western Civilization. We do not mean the political process itself so much as the concept of each citizen having a voice in his or her government, helping to elect leaders and to vote on important issues affecting each person and the nation itself. In order for this political process to occur, the voice of the people must be heard, both individually and collectively. That collective voice is usually organized into a system of political parties, each of which represents a range of viewpoints. In most cases, that range of viewpoints is considerably narrower within one party than between parties. Thus, members of one party may range from liberal to moderate in their views, while the otghe major party may range from moderate to conservative. While the views of both of these parties may meet in the middle, the range is clearly different between them. For this sort of political process to contribute to Western Civilization, it must be the ruling or guiding method of governance in the nation. Some nations have the 3 appearance or pretense of a democratic political process but not the reality. Instead, a dictator or similar official controls that nation, and the politics are merely used to make the people think that they have a real voice. Nevertheless, Western Civilization seems to be advancing towards more real political systems. Constitutional government is the result of the interaction of the rule of laws, democratic political systems, and the concept that individuals are of equa

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Empire by purchase or rental, like the acquisition of property in a Research Paper

Empire by purchase or rental, like the acquisition of property in a Monopoly board game, remains a neglected but highly su - Research Paper Example Imperialism has existence since time immemorial taking different forms. In the ancient times, imperialism was in the form of one type of civilization or ethnicity having control of all then other around it. A good example is the Roman Empire. The earliest form of modern imperialism was in the form of colonial expansion overseas in the 14th to 19th century1. Countries in Europe were fighting over territories in Asia, the new world and Africa. The main aim of this form of imperialism was to be in control of trade and raw materials from its colonies thereby monopolizing the benefits from the transactions2. In the 19th century, there was a new form of imperialism which came with free trade. In this, countries would have control over others through diplomacy and economic agreement. Most formal empires came to an end after World War II. This did not last long but have been replaced by neocolonialism. This is the situation where the economic powerful countries such as the America have a lot of influence of third world countries. This article reviews the significance of empires, the motives behind empirial expansion and finally compares Alaska and Guantanamo. Significance of Empires Imperialism has had both positive and negative impact on the countries or people who were incorporated into the powerful states or nations depending on the form of imperialism. ... This ensured that the members of the weaker nations could now have better living standards, with reduced mortality compared to their earlier lives. However, Imperialism in the form of colonialism had several devastating impacts on the colonies. This I despite the fact that the mother countries invested in the development of these countries, their main focuses was in development of those areas related to the specific raw material that eh countries were interested in and not the others4. These developments did not therefore benefit these colonies but benefitted their master. In the end, this form of relationship ended up benefitting the mother colonies booting the development of these economies at their expense. A major significance of empires is that it results in the bringing together of people from different backgrounds. As a result, wealth from the different people and land is amassed and this creates an empire which now becomes more economically powerful5. This has been the case i n American which is made up of different states. Some of these states were bough for instance Alaska was bought from Russia. Because of this union of states and use of a common currency, America is today the most economically powerful nation in the world. Other important empires whose contribution has been significance to the world today are the British Empire which introduced the parliamentary democracy to countries around the world6. The Greek empire has had a lot of legacy in the present day society in terms of academic contribution, culture and art. The Roman Empire has also contributed to the development of the contemporary society7. Other empires whose impacts are felt today are the Muslim and Christian empire which dominates two thirds of

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The War Powers Act of 1973 Essay Example for Free

The War Powers Act of 1973 Essay The fundamental conflict between Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution gave occasion to the passing of The War Powers Act of 1973 also known as The War Powers Resolution of 1973. The former constitutional provision granted the power to declare war to Congress while the latter appointed the President of the United States to be the Commander-in-Chief of the country’s armed forces. The conflict occurred because the Presidents, in sending American soldiers to war in their capacity as their Commander-in-Chief, have been ignoring the provision of the constitution which vested unto Congress the â€Å"sole power to declare war. † This practice was believed to have started when President Truman sent American soldiers to Korea without a congressional declaration of war. The truth was, the United States Congress had not officially declared any war after World War II (Lithwick). It was observed that the U. S. Presidents believed that as long as Congress did not declare any war formally, committing American soldiers to hostilities was within their constitutional power as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. In other words, so long as Congress could be prevented from declaring war formally, the presidents retain a virtual free hand in such cases (Centre for European Policy Studies).     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After the war in Vietnam, however, the members of Congress, in an effort to assert their authority to declare war which was granted by the constitution, passed The War Powers Act of 1973 over the veto which was exercised by then President Richard Nixon. Unfortunately, the act failed to settle with finality the conflict between the President and Congress. As a matter of fact, almost all American Presidents continued to ignore Congress, including The War Powers Act of 1973, for various reasons (Rasky).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Act has three prominent sections. These are Sections 3 (which deals on â€Å"Consultation†); Section 4 (Reporting); and Section 5, which discusses â€Å"Congressional Action.† Section 3 specifically states that The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situation where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the  circumstances, and after every such introduction shall consult regularly with  the Congress until United States Armed Forces are no longer engaged in  hostilities or have been removed from such situations (War Powers Resolution of 1973).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This provision clearly asserts the constitutional authority of Congress in the declaration of war or the commitment of American soldiers to any war or war-like activities. In other words, Congress do not only want to be consulted before the President sends any troops to hostile situations, but it should also be appraised of the situation while the troops are still in the area. Finally, the President should consult with Congress when the troops will already be withdrawn or have already been withdrawn.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Section 4, on the other hand, states that when American forces are deployed in hostilities without a war being declared, a written report should be submitted by the President within 48 hours of such deployment to both the Speaker of the House of Representatives as well as the President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. The report should explain the reasons for the action and the â€Å"estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement.† Aside from submitting this written report at least once every six months, the President should also answer any questions posed by Congress concerning its constitutional war-making powers (War Powers Resolution of 1973).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These provisions, unfortunately, had been cited as not only burdensome and dilatory, but also unfair, particularly Section 3, when Congress is in recess. For instance, President Gerald Ford experienced some difficulties along this line when American forces were being evacuated from DaNang sometime in 1975 and again in 1976 in Lebanon. He said that â€Å"When the evacuation of DaNang was forced upon us during the Congress’s Easter recess, not one of the key bipartisan leaders of the Congress was in Washington.† He said that because of the break, some of the key leaders were in Greece. Others were in the People’s Republic of China, while there were those who spent the time in Mexico, the Middle East, and Europe. He expressed disappointment with the law, calling it unfair especially since, according to him, â€Å"military operations seldom wait for Congress to meet,† claiming further that many critical situations around the world in fact arose when it was nighttime in Washington (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). In essence, President Ford was explaining that preparing for and/or actually going to war could be greatly hampered by all these consultations and reporting to Congress because any element of surprise or advantage of quick retaliation would be lost in the process.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Republican President Ronald Reagan had similarly experienced the dilatory effect of the War Powers Act in 1982. After deploying American Marines to Lebanon, President Reagan complied with the provision of the act by making a report about the deployment to Congress. In spite of the majority of the Republicans in the Senate, the deployment was vigorously opposed by the Democratic congressmen who were the majority in the House of Representatives at the time. In other words, the deployment was not granted Congressional authority for several months, only to be approved later the following year after a compromise was reached by the leaders of both houses of Congress, authorizing the U.S. Marines to stay in Lebanon for 18 months. What made matters worse was the observation of some quarters that the opposition to the deployment had been mainly due to partisan political reasons. President Reagan, for his part, was greatly disappointed with the compromise especially since it sought President Reagan’s assurances on what the Marines were not supposed to do, thereby tying down their hands and reducing their effectiveness (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). According to observers, the delay in the authorization and the challenges made in the House of Representatives had the effect of weakening the negotiating position of President Reagan not only with Syria but also with the warring political groups found in Lebanon. As a result, the Department of State’s Director of the Policy Planning Staff, Peter W. Rodman, said that the presence of the Marines in Lebanon was stripped of its deterrent impact. Specifically, Rodman explained that what happened in Congress â€Å"convinced the Syrians that the United States was ‘short of breath’ †¦, thus undermining the delicate diplomatic efforts †¦that sought a negotiated solution† By March 6, 1984, Senator Howard Baker, the Majority Leader, was already questioning the appropriateness and the relevance of the War Powers Act as an interactive tool between the two branches of government. He voiced the opinion that the country’s military involvement in other countries could not always start off â€Å"with a prolonged tedious and divisive negotiation between the executive and the legislative branches of Government [because] The world and its many challenges to [American] interests simply do not allow [such] luxury†   (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). Records would later show that that Lebanese episode was the first and only incident where Congress was able to invoke the War Powers Act. Nevertheless, a compromise subsequently produced the required congressional authority and effectively aborted what could have been a genuine face-off between the two branches of government (Rasky).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Section 5, which provides for the necessary congressional action, is the third important section of the Act. Subsection (a) of this section provides that when Congress is not in session for at least three days when the President’s report is being transmitted to Congress, the President could be requested jointly by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representative to convene Congress for the sole purpose of considering the report and taking any appropriate action where necessary. Obviously, this provision should be interpreted as proof of Congress’s intention of giving due priority to the problem. Subsection (b), on the other hand, requires the President to withdraw the American forces from the area of hostilities sixty days from the filing of the report to Congress unless: Congress has either officially declared war or has issued its authorization for the continued use of the American forces; has granted a statutory extension after the sixty-day period has lapsed; or fails to convene for the purpose of acting on the matter resulting from any armed attack from hostile parties. This section likewise specifies that in a case where an extension to the sixty-day period is requested by the President for any valid reason, Congress is only empowered to grant an additional 30 days to effect the safe withdrawal of the American forces. Finally, subsection (c) specifically provides that â€Å"at any time that United States Armed Forces are engaged in hostilities outside the territory of the United States, its possessions and territories without a declaration of war or specific statutory authorization, such forces shall be removed by the President if the Congress so directs by concurrent resolution† (War Powers Resolution of 1973).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to this subsection, a concurrent resolution by the House of Representatives and the Senate could compel the President to immediately withdraw American forces from undeclared wars. This, however, has been deemed unconstitutional by some quarters, interpreting the provision as giving â€Å"the force of law to a concurrent resolution, which is passed by majorities in both chambers of Congress, but is not presented to the President for his consent or veto.† They have cited Article I, Section 7, Clause 3 of the Constitution which provides that Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds vote of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the case of a Bill (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). Works Cited Lithwick, Dahlia. â€Å"What War Powers Does the President Have?† 15 January 2008.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.slate.com/id/1008290 Centre For European Policy Studies. â€Å"On a European War Powers Act.† 19 February 2007.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   15 January 2008. http://ceps01.link.be/Article.php?=article_id=80 â€Å"HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR.† The Progressive Conservative. Ed. Alman Leroy Way,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jr. 10 June – 31 December 1999. 15 January 2008.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.geocities.com/way_leroy/ProConVolTwoIssueOnePage5.html Rasky, Susan F. â€Å"War Powers Act: Years of Conflict Over Constitutionality.† New York   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Times online. 19 April 1988. 15 January 2008.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://ceps01.link.be/Article.php?=article_id=80 â€Å"War Powers Resolution of 1973.† Almanac of Policy Issues. 7 November 1973. 15 January http://www.policyalmanac.org/world/archive/war_powers_resolution.shtml

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Book Review of Slovenia 1945 Memories of Death and Survival after World

Slovenia 1945 is a well-crafted blend of personal memories, historiography, and eyewitness accounts. The result is moving narrative that avoids the turgidity and dryness historical studies may fall prey to, as well as the indulgent emotionalism of some memoirs. The starting point for the volume was the letters written by John Corsellis, a conscientious objector working in the Friends Ambulance Unit in Austrian Carinthia from 1945 to 1947. This material was fleshed out with several dozen interviews, a diary by camp survivor France Perni?ek, and the journalist Marcus Ferrar. Although Corsellis is a central participant in the story, his presence in the book is subtle and unobtrusive. Structurally, the book is attractive to both casual readers and serious researchers. In addition to the main text, there are fifteen photos, three maps, an outline of the chief characters, a four-page catalogue of other persons, a tightly packed six-page bibliography, and a five-page index of people, subjects, and places. A striking feature of the book is its impartiality?a goal that the authors explicitly state in the prologue (p. 2). Negative sides of all participants are depicted: Germans (slave labor, attacks on civilians, book burning), Italians (the Rab concentration camp, the myth of kind and romantic soldiers), Partisans (theft, murder, rape), Catholics (the Black Hand death squads), the western Allies (shooting at civilians, looting), and the Village Guards (burning prisoners to death). However, the book is much more than a catalogue of crimes; it also relates the human sides of all involved: individual acts of kindness by combatants and civilians on all sides. The narrative is replete with religious imagery?priests, ... ...jana: Modrian. Markovski, Venko. 1984. Goli Otok: The Island of Death. Boulder: Social Science Monographs. Mila?, Metod. 2002. Resistance, Imprisonment & Forced Labor. A Slovene Student in World War II [= Studies in Modern European History 47]. New York: Peter Lang. Reindl, Donald F. 2001. Mass Graves from the Communist Past Haunt Slovenia?s Present, RFE/RL Newsline 5.225 (29 November), available at http://www.rferl.org/ newsline/2001/11/5-not/not- 291101.asp Sirc, Ljubo. 1989. Between Hitler and Tito: Nazi Occupation and Communist Oppression. London: Andre Deutsch. Tolstoy, Nikolai. 1986. The Minister and the Massacres. London: Century Hutchinson. John Corsellis & Marcus Ferrar. Slovenia 1945: Memories of Death and Survival after World War II. London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 2005. xi + 276 pp., ï ¿ ½24.50 ($47.97) (cloth). ISBN: 1-85043-840-0.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Managing Organization Change Essay

Organization change occurs due to various reasons that the management sets up in order to improve its performance. Management change requires thoughtful planning from the management and also sensitive implementation of the changes. The management also has to consult and involve the people who are going to be affected by the implementation of those changes. If people are forced to accept the change then they will be big problems. The change to be implemented should be real, achievable and more so measurable. These issues are particularly relevant in dealing with personal change. For organization change, before starting to implement it you should know what you want to achieve, why you want that change, and how you will measure the change. Organizational change is much related to personal change as it requires the personnel to implement it. Change is an organization is something certain so that the organization can catch up with new technologies and challenges that arise with time. A good example is International Business Machines (IBM) which was faced with hyper competition from its competitors which lead to reduction of its market share and low revenue. Though, change is a risky business for an organization as research shows that over 70% of new changes effected in companies fail, it is vital. So, why did IBM have to under go organizational changes yet is that risky? It changed it organizational operations because of the external pressure and demands. Thus, the company had to review its strategic decisions in order to create new plans and goals that can be implemented to achieve these new goals. To effect these changes IBM choose the director  image of change as their tool of implementing these changes. Why director, because the image allows the managers to lead through the proposed changes by going step by step, through the cycles of recommended changes, together with the personnel that is involved. For example, diagnosis of the changes, unfreezing and implementing the changes. In addition this image of change gives the managers high control in designing the process of changes and also on implementing them, this ensures that the managers are in charge of the activities and are able to ensure that the process are well followed and maintained. This ensures that the proposed changes are effectively implemented. The other advantage of this image of change is that, it views results from the proposed changes as certainly achievable and thus does not leave room for doubts. In order to remain competitive on the market IBM had to implement some business development changes in the organization. By making changes in the business development section, the most important aspect that IBM considered was quality. IBM identified particular new business development goals and then had to formulate a business plan that included the following ways of development; development in sales, development of new products, creation of new markets, structural and also processes development change for example e- business, making new strategic partnerships together with development of distributions channels, and initiating international development. Another thing IBM did looking for acquisitions of small companies. All this internal changes were geared towards recapturing the markets and increasing sales. The business development changes implemented by IBM resulted in increase in revenue as their sales increased and they were able to capture new markets. IBM also was able to improve the quality of its products to international standards, at the same time it injected new products that were in line with new trends on the markets. Other images management change that the organization can use are Navigator and caretaker. In navigator image, the manager has to identify various change options available and take one. Unlike in the director here the managers have limited control in implementing the proposed changes. Although, the management views that they will achieve the goals of the proposed change, they also view that other problems may arise. While in caretaker image, the management makes change by forwarding it to the very end, and has little control on the processes of designing change and implementing it. The management views change as achievable, however, cannot manipulate the way change occurs. I think the best way of implementing change is using the director image as it gives control to the management which is an important aspect in planning and implementing change in organization. Thus, I will recommend IBM to continue using it. Conclusion In this fast moving business environment it has become increasingly necessary for organization to embrace change especially in its technology and marketing strategies, in order to maintain competitive edge. Competition and demand in high quality products has made business environments to be very dynamic in that it requires dynamic organization and systems to offer effective responses to these dynamic business environments by implementing planning and implementing successfully changes. As in the case of IBM, the management must chose the image of management change that will give best result and use it. If well implemented results will be always be good.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Living on A Minimum Wage

Barbara Ehrenreich is a writer and journalist who decided to conduct an experiment and find out for herself what it is like to live on the minimum wage. For one month at a time she entered various communities, taking on minimum wage positions and trying to stay ahead. Ehrenreich detailed her experience in the book Nickel and Dimed. This books offers insight into the real lives and struggles of these people, showing just how difficult life is for them. As well as this, it is a striking account of how the lower class are treated by their employers and by people in general. The first thing that was immediately noticeable in the book was just how hard it was for people on the minimum wage just to achieve the basics of having food and shelter. Ehrenreich started the experiment in Key West and was not planning to live an extravagant life at all. Her plan was to find a job that would pay $7 an hour and a place to rent at a low enough price that she could afford food and gas. Ehrenreich's plan is to live in a trailer home. However, she soon finds that even a trailer home comes at a rent that is too high. Ehrenreich describes this realization saying that â€Å"it is a shock to realize that ‘trailer trash' has become, for me, a demographic category to aspire to† (Ehrenreich p. 12). This was surprising and shocking to read and changed my opinion about conditions for people on the minimum wage. I had considered that people living in trailer homes were struggling, but had never considered that they were struggling to the extent that just affording a trailer home would be so difficult. I also assumed that people living on minimum wage would be able to at least afford basic items such as food and shelter, even if they were not able to afford luxuries. This immediately opened my eyes to just how much people struggle just to get the basic essentials. This same problem is revealed again later in the book where Ehrenreich experiences the same thing in different towns. At one point, she is working two jobs and working seven days a week. Even then, she is only just able to supply herself with the basics. Ehrenreich also offers an opinion on the housing problem where she states that the high rent is a problem in all places â€Å"where tourists and the wealthy compete for living space with the people who clean their toilets and fry their food† (Ehrenreich 12). This suggests that the minimum wage earners are pushed out of decent accommodation by the people who are better off. The higher wage earners can afford higher rent and so rents go as high as these people can afford. Ehrenreich's reference to the wealthy though, doesn't seem to refer to those that would typically be considered wealthy. Instead, the wealthy are labeled from the point of view of someone who is on minimum wage. The wealthy then are really the skilled workers who are by no means rich, but are rich enough to afford to live reasonably well and at least manage to meet their basic needs and achieve a basic living standard. This strongly suggests that there is a major problem in society, since it seems absurd to think that you have to be wealthy just to have enough to have a decent place to live and be able to eat. This is a basic right that every person should have and it seems wrong that it is not available to everyone. It seems especially wrong that it is not available to a person working as hard and as many hours as Ehrenreich does. Ehrenreich also provides further analysis of the problem. As she sees it, there is a supply and demand issue at the heart of the problem. Workers need to work, but there are more workers then there are jobs. This gives employers the ability to keep wages current and still have those jobs filled. In fact, this just created more demand for jobs because workers will be looking for two or three jobs. In this situation, there is no need for employers to increase wages so they do not. This results in the wages being fixed. At the same time, there is demand for rental properties, food, and all the other essentials. This demand is not driven by the people on minimum wage, but by the population overall. While the people on minimum wage may not ever be moving forward, the economy overall and the population overall is always moving forward. This means that the cost of everything is always increasing, which includes the cost of food and the cost of rent. The question this raises is how people on minimum wage are ever supposed to catch up. How can they save anything to better themselves or improve their situation if every cent they earn is spent just trying to live? And if they cannot move ahead but everything else keeps moving ahead, what other option is there but for the people to fall further and further behind? This suggests that the conditions will continue to worsen. People on minimum wage will have to work more jobs and longer hours and will be able to do less and less with that money. In the book, Ehrenreich shows that she came very close to having to live in a shelter. It seems that life will only become harder and this downhill spiral may be the only direction that life can go for people on the bottom levels. Another important point in the book relates to how Ehrenreich is treated. From her first attempts to get a job, there is always the sense that she is being looked down upon by others. The job application processes seem uncaring at best and often humiliating. The working conditions seem just as bad. And for the customers that she serves in her roles, it seems like she is treated as barely human. The only real kindness or consideration she receives is from people in the same position as her. For employers and the public, she is either not noticed at all or seen as inferior and not deserving better treatment. For the public, I think this is something that happens naturally, rather than something is done out of cruelty. As long as someone is in a job and performing a job task, they tend to be though of as existing to perform that task. This applies to all positions, whether it be minimum wage or not. For example, it is natural to think of doctors and dentists in terms of the jobs they perform and not to consider them as people. For this point then, I don't think that the book shows a special disregard for minimum wage earners. Instead, it is more like there is just a lack of awareness about these people. In the end though, I don't think it is up to the public to show regard for minimum wage earners or any other type of worker. Instead, it should be up to the employer to treat all employees fairly. As noted though, there is no requirement for companies to do so. And the companies are always thinking of employees as a cost and not considering their personal needs. What can be done about the problem them? Ehrenreich does not provide an answer and there is no clear solution. However, just noticing that there is a problem to be solved is a good start. The book also shows power issues between employers and employers. Ehrenreich suggests that employers are keen to maintain their power over employees, including making it clear that employees should not join unions. During the interview process, Ehrenreich has to answer questions about whether she has children that would interfere with her ability to get to work and whether she thinks safety is the responsibility of management. Ehrenreich also describes trick questions asking about things like the amount of stolen goods purchased per year and the attitude on drugs. It seems clear that the interview process is created with the belief that the person will be a problematic employee. They might injure themselves and expect management to care. They might be late for work because of their children. They might be on drugs or steal from the company. The situation does not get any better when Ehrenreich gets a job, with her boss then constantly watching her for signs of drug abuse, stealing, or any other form of rule breaking. The situation that Ehrenreich describes is one where the employer has complete power. Despite all the laws on equal opportunity, it seems that employers can discriminate and choose not to employ someone who has children. Despite the law protecting the safety of workers, it seems that employers can ignore their duty of protecting employees. Overall, it seems that employees have no rights at all and no power at all. The companies can make demands and the employee's situation gives them no choice but to accept the demands. The power issues also seem to be increased by the view that the employers have of the employees. They seem to expect employees to be drug abusers, to be likely to steal, and to be barely intelligent or capable enough to perform basic duties. It is this attitude that has minimum wage earners like Ehrenreich being looked down on and treated with no respect. As Ehrenreich notes several times, minimum wage earners are seen as nothing more than people who have no choice but to do the jobs that are above everyone else. What can be done about this problem? Ehrenreich does not provide any answers to this questions. However, what she does do is make it clear that there is a very real problem. After reading the book, the daily battle of minimum wage earners becomes disturbingly clear. It is even more concerning when is it considered that Ehrenreich has trouble surviving as a minimum wage earner even though she has a lot more going for her than most, including that she only has herself to support. If Ehrenreich can't do it, it seems clear that nobody can. The end result of the book is the realization that there is a major problem in society that needs to be fixed. This is what the makes the book powerful, with Ehrenreich's account of her struggle able to open people's eyes to the world that they either couldn't see or didn't want to see.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Drunken walk Essay Example

Drunken walk Essay Example Drunken walk Paper Drunken walk Paper â€Å"The Drunkards Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives† by Leonard Mlodinow was appreciated as one of the best book in 2009. People say this book can change the way of thinking and looking at things forever. The main idea of the book is the significance of the chance and its influence on the life. The author gives his reader the fresh insight on the political votes, different ratings, the rises and falls of celebrities, and related this with the common things in the life, from the morning conversation to the financial setback. The book could be even considered as scholar source but the brilliant writing style and the sparkling humor made it the bestseller. â€Å"The Drunkard Walk† Generally, the idea of Mlodinow isn’t new: the author proves it citing the book of the 16th century author Gerolamo Cardano. The book â€Å"Book on Games of Chance† describes the importance of Fortune, and Mlodinow just develops the idea. Probably the most valuable feature of this book is the feeling of control that the reader can obtain after finishing reading. The experiments proved that the person, who is in control on his or her environment, can live longer – even if the control is less that this person thinks. However, the author warns his reader from overestimation of the control. He describes the story of a Paramount studio executive, Sherry Lansing. She was the head of the studio in the times of its successful blockbusters, like â€Å"Titanic† and â€Å"Forrest Gump†. Suddenly the streak of a good luck finished, the studio released some unsuccessful movies and Sherry Lansing was fired. After her discharge Paramount had the best summer in a decade. From the cause-effect relationship point of view the relation is obvious: Lansing was discharged, the success retuned to Paramount, ergo, her discharge was justified. However, the author remains us that the movie production is rather long process, and the most successful films like â€Å"War of the Worlds† and â€Å"The Longest Yard† were already in production in the moment of Lansing discharge. Thus, Lansing was sure she controlled the situation, and her management was sure she was the reason of slowdown. The story proves they both were mistaken. Mlodonow warns his reader against the hasty conclusions, especially based on the â€Å"statistics†. The problem is people usually undervalue the importance of the perception. â€Å"†¦in all aspects of our lives we encounter streaks and other peculiar patterns of success and failure. Sometimes success predominates, sometimes failure. Either way it is important in our own lives to take the long view and understand that streaks and other patterns that don’t appear random can indeed happen by pure chance. It is also important, when assessing others, to recognize that among a large group of people it would be very odd if one of them didn’t experience a long streak of successes or failures. (Mlodinow, 2009)† Our perception have the impact on our decisions, and â€Å"human perception, Faraday recognized, is not a direct consequence of reality but rather an act of imagination. (Mlodonow, 2009)† Besides, Mlodinow explains the laws of math statistics, making his reader understand that 50-50 probability is almost the pure abstraction, which doesn’t exist in reality due to randomness. However, his conclusions are rather optimistic. It is impossible to predict the outcome of a single coin toss or a given trade, but it us real to describe the results of a series using the laws of statistics and probability. Conclusion The book of Mlodinow is a mix of author’s opinion about the randomness and the historical narratives on statistics. The author concludes that though the randomness is everywhere, it is almost impossible to manage it. The only way to manage the randomness is to create it, but it also doesn’t guarantee the success. However, the understanding of basic math statistics laws together with the feeling of confidence makes the book worth reading. References Mlodinow, L. (2009) â€Å"The Drunkards Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives†. Vintage Books. ISBN: 0307275175.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

A Guide to Shanghainese

A Guide to Shanghainese Since Shanghai is in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), the official language of the city is standard Mandarin Chinese, also known as  Putonghua. However, the traditional language of the Shanghai region is Shanghainese, which is a dialect of Wu Chinese which is not mutually intelligible with Mandarin Chinese. Shanghainese is spoken by about 14 million people. It has retained its cultural significance for the Shanghai region, despite the introduction of Mandarin Chinese as the official language in 1949. For many years, Shanghainese was banned from primary and secondary schools, with the result that many young residents of Shanghai do not speak the language. Recently, however, there has been a movement to protect the language and to reintroduce it into the education system. Shanghai Shanghai is the largest city in the PRC, with a population of more than 24 million people. It is a major cultural and financial center and an important port for container shipments. The Chinese characters for this city are ä ¸Å Ã¦ µ ·, which is pronounced ShnghÇŽi. The first character ä ¸Å  (shng) means on, and the second character æ µ · (hÇŽi) means ocean. The name ä ¸Å Ã¦ µ · (ShnghÇŽi) adequately describes the location of this city, since it is a port city on the mouth of the Yangtze River by the East China Sea. Mandarin vs Shanghainese Mandarin and Shanghainese are distinct languages which are mutually unintelligible. For example, there are 5 tones in Shanghainese versus only 4 tones in Mandarin. Voiced initials are used in Shanghainese, but not in Mandarin. Also, changing tones affects both words and phrases in Shanghainese, while it only affects words in Mandarin. Writing Chinese characters are used to write Shanghainese. The written language is one of the most important factors in unifying the various Chinese cultures, since it can be read by most Chinese, regardless of their spoken language or dialect. The primary exception to this is the split between traditional and simplified Chinese characters. Simplified Chinese characters were introduced by the PRC in the 1950s, and can differ greatly from the traditional Chinese characters still used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and many overseas Chinese communities. Shanghai, as part of the PRC, uses simplified characters. Sometimes Chinese characters are used for their Mandarin sounds to write Shanghainese. This type of Shanghainese writing is seen on Internet blog posts and chat rooms as well as in some Shanghainese textbooks. Decline of Shanghainese From the early 1990s, the PRC banned Shanghainese from the education system, with the result that many of the young residents of Shanghai no longer speak the language fluently. Because the younger generation of Shanghai residents has been educated in Mandarin Chinese, the Shanghainese they speak is often mixed with Mandarin words and expressions. This type of Shanghainese is quite different from the language that older generations speak, which has created fears that real Shanghainese is a dying language. Modern Shanghainese In recent years, a movement has started to try to preserve the Shanghai language by promoting its cultural roots. The Shanghai government is sponsoring educational programs, and there is a movement to reintroduce Shanghainese language learning from kindergarten through to university. Interest in preserving Shanghainese is strong, and many young people, even though they speak a mixture of Mandarin and Shanghainese, see Shanghainese as a badge of distinction. Shanghai, as one of the most important cities of the PRC, has important cultural and financial ties with the rest of the world. The city is using those ties to promote Shanghai culture and the Shanghainese language.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Quantitative Methods for Accountants Math Problem

Quantitative Methods for Accountants - Math Problem Example Negative shadow price for contract obligation (-'3) indicates that each additional unit of product A to be produced according to the contract provision will have 3-equivalent negative influence on the value of the objective function. Reduction of the amount of product A to be produced and sold will have the opposite effect. Selling price - (Labour time required * shadow price for Labour time - Machine time required * shadow price for Machine time - Raw material required * shadow price for Raw material - Changes in contract amount* shadow price for contract) = .. Shadow price for raw materials (4) indicates that each additional unit of raw material bought or used will have '4-equivalent positive (negative correspondingly) effect on the objective function. Negative shadow price for contract obligation (-'3) indicates that each additional unit of product A to be produced according to the contract provision will have 3-equivalent negative influence on the value of the objective function. Reduction of the amount of product A to be produced and sold will have the opposite effect. d) The impact of producing Product D on the total contribution to profit can be calculated as indicated: Selling price - (Labour time required * shadow price for Labour time - Machine time required * shadow price for Machine time - Raw material required * shadow price for Raw material - Changes in contract amount* shadow price for contract) == '55 - ' (6*0 + 6*0 + 3*4 - 0*(-3)) = ' 55 - ' 12 = ' 43 As the calculated value is positive and quite significant the company also should produce product