Wednesday, December 25, 2019
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Tuesday, December 17, 2019
8932 October 17th, 2017 Paper #2: Literature Review Please write a 1,000 word paper reviewing a set of literature displaying the various dimensions of research conducted in an area of your interests. What part does capital punishment/death row play in the American society? For my literature review, I decided to do it on capital punishment in America. I wanted to focus on exactly what part it plays within the society now days. I decided to choose this topic since it tights in with my research paper. After reading different works literatures and texts, my suggestion was the following: Could it be that capital punishment fails as a preventive measure to stop criminal activities? The answer is yes. Here is how first and for most, the texts IÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Prejean discusses in her book Deadman Walking, her private opinion on capital punishment due to her religious background, and the correlation in the increase of crimes. She elaborates more on this finding, and state that the murder rate increased just one year before the death penalty was abolished in Canada in 1975 (Prejean 1992). Rosenburg states that a brutalization effect resulted in an increased murder rates as a result of executions (capital punishment). (Rosenberg 2000) Furthermore, on top of not reducing criminal activities, Capital punishment is a waste of money. Dieter state that Over two-thirds of the states and the federal government have installed an exorbitantly expensive system of capital punishment which has been a failure by any measure of effectiveness. Literally, hundreds of millions of dollars have already been spent on a response to crime which is calculated to be carried out on a few people each year and which has done nothing to stem the rise in violent crime (Dieter n.d.)When in fact there is another way to go about it. The death penalty is much more expensive than its closest alternative -- life imprisonment with no parole. Capital trials are longer and more expensive at every step than other murder trials. (Dieter n.d.)Over the past three decades, there has been a downward trend in the number of murders that lead to arrest and conviction to the point that onlyShow MoreRelatedLiterature Review on Death Penalty1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDo You Agree With The Death Penalty? Abstract The main focus on this literature review paper is going to be over Ã¢â¬Å"Do you agree with the death penalty?Ã¢â¬ . I gathered information by asking a series of questions of other individuals. Some of the questions I asked was, Ã¢â¬Å"Do you think the death penalty is a deterrent from a crime?Ã¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"How should the death penalty be administered?Ã¢â¬ My goal is to find out how many people agree or disagree with the death penalty, and why. This will be a goodRead MoreCapital Punishment Is Abolished By Harold Wilsons Labour Government1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1.1 Introduction Capital Punishment was abolished Ã¢â¬Å"under Harold WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Labour government in 1969Ã¢â¬ (Manton.K, 2011, P.16) in the United Kingdom, but there have been continuing debates concerning the reinstatement of the death penalty in the UK.(BBC NEWS, 2011) reports that the conservative party MP calls for submission on capital punishment in the UK. The Brigg and Goole MP Ã¢â¬Å"is one of a number of Tory backbenchers calling for a commons debate of the return of capital punishment.Ã¢â¬ (BBC NEWS, 5th AugustRead MoreCapital Punishment Was Abolished By Harold Wilson1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCapital Punishment was abolished Ã¢â¬Å"under Harold WilsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Labour government in 1969Ã¢â¬ (Manton.K, 2011, P.16) in the United Kingdom, but there have been continuing debates concerning the reinstatement of the death penalty in the UK.(BBC NEWS, 2011) reports that the Conservative party MP calls for submission on capital punishment in the UK. The Brigg and Goole MP Ã¢â¬Å"is o ne of a number of Tory backbenchers calling for a commons debate of the return of capital punishment.Ã¢â¬ (BBC NEWS, 5th August 2011) CurrentlyRead MoreThe Death Penalty : Land Of The Brave, Free, And Murder1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMurder Capital punishment has been in the United States long before the country was formed. Influenced by Great Britain in the 17th century, settlers brought over the idea of government sanctioned murder, and even now, over 400 years later, the majority of the United States is still in favour. With thirty one states currently practicing or allowing the law to remain on the books, the message of the States stance on capital punishment is clear; however, the current state of capital punishment in thisRead MoreA Summary On Capital Punishment1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSean Starosta Mr. Cobb American Literature May 26, 2015 Capital Punishment In 1939 Joe Arridy was convicted and executed for the 1936 rape and murder of a Pueblo Colorado schoolgirl despite serious doubts over his competence and guilt. Fast forward seventy two years and capital punishment is at its lowest rate in years, murder rates are at some of the lowest levels on record (Johnson). and Colorado governor Bill Ritter grants Arridy an unconditional pardon based on an Ã¢â¬Å"overwhelming body of evidenceÃ¢â¬ Read MoreThe Bible and Death Penalty Essay example812 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYoung, the results showed that those who believed in the Bible were more likely to support the death penalty (Young, 1992). In an article that was written it was stated that those who have a more literal view of the Bible tend to support harsher punishments (Mencken, Johnson, Desmond and Bader, 2010). Not every study agrees with the other but looking at statistics will be interesting to see if there is a relationship between someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the Bible and their vie w on the death penalty for murdersRead MoreIntroduction of the Cut Throat Institutions of Western Capitalism into China1556 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestributaries/ river canal, Ã¢â¬Å"created the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous trading areaÃ¢â¬ (Fairbank pg.89). Domestically this boosted transportation of goods within the Song dynasty. Commerce in Northern China was cultivated to meet the wishes of the capital because the northern capital was always under threat from nomadic forces for example the Ruzhen warriors. The northern industry developed steelmaking methods (much earlier than ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s European counter parts) that were used for the military in making steel weaponsRead MoreCapital Punishment And The Death Penalty Essay1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiterature Review Capital punishment is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a form of sentencing where the convicted person is ordered to death by the court system (Dotson and Carter, 2012, p.1). Capital punishment also known as the death penalty is one of the most controversial issues in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Many supporters and opponents of the death penalty debate over whether it is constitutional, whether it is inhumane, and whether it deters crime. Some abolitionists view the death penalty as immoral because it violatesRead MoreThe Effect of the Death Penalty in Texas1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Effect of the Death Penalty in Texas Introduction A lot of heat and controversy surrounds capital punishment in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The death penalty was built into the Texas justice system in 1835 and has retained most of its strength compared to the rest of the states. The famous motto Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Mess with TexasÃ¢â¬ stands true when concerning the death penalty; In Kenneth WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"Texas: Tough on Murderers or on Fairness?.Ã¢â¬ Williams states, Ã¢â¬Å"No one promotes this message [DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Mess withRead MoreThe Illegalization Of Capital Punishment1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBrianna Pulido Ms. Ingram American Literature 14 April, 2015 The Illegalization of Capital Punishment The Death Penalty, also termed capital punishment, is the legal process in which a person is put to death by the federal or state government based on having committed one of 43 capital crimes, such as first-degree murder, espionage or treason. The death penalty is enforced based upon the idea that law abiding members of society will no longer have to worry about convicted criminals being able
Monday, December 9, 2019
It was the beginning of August, when the Black Sea began to cool, and the familiar sound of gusting winds and waves slapping against the cliffs returned, setting a backdrop to my days. I was looking forward to the end of the summer and returning home to New York. There was a tense feeling in the lakeside atmosphere, as my country, Georgia, was being subjected to political pressure by Russia. It was August 7th and the Russian Federation was on the border of the ancient Kolkhins Mountain ridge Ã¢â¬â but they were not here for hearty borscht and high tea. It was then and there, as the news was breaking on TV, that the haunting reflection of Ã reality pierced through the pinholes of my pupils. I had no reaction, standing motionless like Auguste Rodins Ã¢â¬Å"The Thinker.Ã¢â¬ Russia had invaded the breakaway region of southern Ossetia, and my family and I were in the middle of a war zone. We will write a custom essay sample on What#39s War Got To Do With It? or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The overwhelming mixture of music that emanated from the clubs near my house began, like a tone-deaf chorus. I slowly made my way to the balcony, where all I could see was a deserted beach and waves crashing against the terrain. The words of the CNN commentators echoed off the living room and flowed in one ear and out the other, like a Hymenolepis tapeworm scavenging for food, or in my case, a dash of reality. I spent the rest of the day trying to study my Italian. Ã¢â¬Å"Va bene, come sta?Ã¢â¬ I repeated, trying to block the farce that I was building in my mind, the idea that this war would end up being nothing. It felt as though lichen had grown in my stomach, and a colony of black-spotted butterflies called my intestines home. Later that evening, the moon set high above the blackened coastline of Gonio; the waves continued to slowly roll. In the darkest hours of the night my mother rushed in, panicked and yelling that Russian fighter jets had passed nearby, bombing a town only a few kilometers away. It sounded like they were returning. I followed her with a flashlight as we both quickly settled on the balcony. I looked out and all I could see was darkness and the onset of chaos. Streaks of bright vein-like flashes Ã reflected in the mountain ridge like firing neurons during a seizure. Most of the town was dark. I could only see the highway lights flickering. Everything seemed too Ã unreal. Shrieks and shouts echoed through the streets like an uncanny soundtrack. I could feel the burst of blood that rushed through my arteries. The fear of dying, the fear of never seeing my friends and family again struck me. I was not only in a physical battlefield, but in an emotional war with myself, trying to overco me my torrential feelings and stay strong. The next few days were like continuous bursts of Ã epinephrine; every few minutes I would hear some rumbling and my heart raced. My life had transformed into a Poe story Ã¢â¬â as he wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"I became insane with long Ã intervals of horrible sanity.Ã¢â¬ I continued to wonder if I would really make it out alive. I feared for my father, who was courageously aiding wounded soldiers at the frontline; I worried for my aunt in the city of Borjomi, set aflame by Russian troops. I was angry with myself for not understanding what other people in such situations go through every day. I had never thought about them, always more interested in when my TV show would return from a commercial break. I felt like a hypocrite. I promised myself that no matter the outcome, no matter the circumstance, no matter what college I attended or what life I lived, that I would somehow make a difference. I would not become some facet of a materialistic world and numb myself from the events that happen around the globe. So, whats war got to do with it? Everything. I hope that my knowledge and experience will help someone in this hostile world. As the American poet and diplomat James Russell Lowell once said, Ã¢â¬Å"True scholarship consists in knowing not what things exist, but what they mean; it is not memory but judgment.Ã¢â¬
Sunday, December 1, 2019
The 2010Ã¢â¬â¢s marked something of a comeback for Southern California alt-rockers, Weezer. Their ninth album, Everything Will Be Alright In The End, returned to the rock roots of the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s iconic early albums, Patrick Wilson was back on drums during live performances, and the band went on a tour in 2011 and 2012 playing their two incredible 90Ã¢â¬â¢s albums (The Blue Album and Pinkerton) cover to cover. Everything was alright in Weezerville. But the highlight of this pseudo-comeback came in the form of a self-titled release in 2016, colloquially known as the White Album. For the first time in their 24-year-long careers, Weezer delivered a beach-themed album. The gorgeous album art showcases the four members of the band standing in front of a beach lifeguard tower, with a beautiful white aesthetic. Many of the songsÃ¢â¬â¢ subjects involve summertime and the beach, though some take a darker approach than one might expect. Weezer took what worked with Everything Will Be Alright In The End, and improved upon it. We will write a custom essay sample on Weezers Beach-Themed Masterpiece or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The lyrics are darker, the instrumentation is more complex and impactful, and the songs are improved overall from its predecessor. Many songs on the White Album sound like they would be at home in a 90Ã¢â¬â¢s Weezer album, but many do not. At all. But that is in no way a bad thing. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank God For GirlsÃ¢â¬ is the first song that comes to mind. The song is different from anything that Weezer had produced previously. It prominently features a piano, like many songs on this record, and the lyrics are bizarrely catchy. When I first listened to this album this song stuck out like a sore thumb. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like it all; I thought it was obnoxious, weird, and the outlier on the album. But after some time has passed, Ã¢â¬Å"Thank God For GirlsÃ¢â¬ has become one of my favorite songs on the White Album. The song is more Ã¢â¬Å"poppyÃ¢â¬ than classic Weezer, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s done in an interesting way that makes the song get stuck in my head for weeks. The lyrics are bizarre, and it does stick out on the album, but in the best ways possible. Although I may not be able to fully comprehend what singer-songwriter Rivers Cuomo is saying, he delivers the lyrics with such emotion, that it makes me care about the story heÃ¢â¬â¢s telling. The weird religious undertones add to the confusion, but the unique instrumentation and emotional delivery of lyrics makes Ã¢â¬Å"Thank God For GirlsÃ¢â¬ stand out as one of my favorite songs on this album. Ã¢â¬Å"Jacked UpÃ¢â¬ is another unique song that stands out as not being necessarily a throwback to WeezerÃ¢â¬â¢s older music. The lead instrument in this song is also a piano, and Rivers Cuomo reaches heights with his voice never before seen in Weezer music. The piano chords make the song seem incredibly dark and moody. Again, the lyrics are confusing, but the chords mixed with the high octaves that Cuomo reaches, give off dark vibes that stick with me after listening to this song. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve discussed some songs on the White Album that are not reminiscent of WeezerÃ¢â¬â¢s older records, but what makes this album a throwback to classic Weezer? Two songs that come to mind are Ã¢â¬Å"California KidsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"King Of The World.Ã¢â¬ Both of these feature power chord filled choruses in classic Weezer fashion, but they manage to be fresh and new at the same time. Ã¢â¬Å"King of the WorldÃ¢â¬ tells an intriguing story inspired by CuomoÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. This type of story is one that would never have been heard on a 90Ã¢â¬â¢s Weezer album. The instrumentation in both of these songs verses is very clean and unique, something that is unique to this album. Weezer manages on the White Album to create songs like Ã¢â¬Å"California KidsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"King of the WorldÃ¢â¬ that are reminiscent of their older, classic records, while still remaining fresh and unique. Pinkerton is my favorite Weezer album (that you can read about here) and there is one song on this album that specifically seems to be calling back to that style of Weezer music. Ã¢â¬Å"Do You Wanna Get High?Ã¢â¬ is performed with crunchy distorted guitars and darker vibes that sound like they could come straight off of the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s legendary 1998 release. Many of the songs on the White Album are heavily reminiscent of Pinkerton, but Ã¢â¬Å"Do You Wanna Get High?Ã¢â¬ is a song that would not be out of place on the record, while still somehow retaining a beach vibe that surrounds the White Album. The closer track on the White Album is something that IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to discuss. Ã¢â¬Å"Endless BummerÃ¢â¬ is an acoustic ballad of sorts with a tone that perfectly caps off this beach-themed record. The lyrics are melancholic in a way that they expertly encapsulate the mood of the White Album. Some songs on this album are upbeat and happy, like Ã¢â¬Å"(Girl We Got A) Good Thing), while some are darker and more ominous (Ã¢â¬Å"Jacked UpÃ¢â¬ ). Ã¢â¬Å"Endless BummerÃ¢â¬ works to combine these two moods into one package, wonderfully tying together all of the themes on this wonderful album. WeezerÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth self-titled record utilizes a beach theme, never before seen in a Weezer album. Rivers CuomoÃ¢â¬â¢s unique, confusing style of lyrics makes for impactful songs when combined with the strong instrumentation from the rest of the four-piece group.The White Album is a close second behind Pinkerton as my favorite Weezer album. All ten songs featured on this album perfectly come together to create an engaging experience while listening to this album in full.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to a Essays Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to any activity that involves more than one country, for example, travel from one country to another. The dramatic increase in transnational travel in recent years has sparked controversy over the potential impacts of this trend on individual countriesf especially those new member states of globalization. Some people are concerned that the upsurge in new arrivals will prompt local hostility against visitors instead of promoting their understanding on mutual cultura l background. This notion should be rejected as one can see many facts in favor of this development between countries. The first reason why international travels would never bring conflict is rooted in the fact that both visitors and locals are economically motivated. International travel opens up opportunities for business development throughout the wor l d. Entrepreneurs are interested not only in the domestic market but also in the oversea market. Foreigners should learn the culture of a country before winning over the local people. In turn, locals should show their hospitality to visitors in exchange for their trust. They share a view that acceptance of each other's cultural background is a necessary condition for cooperation. Understanding a cu lt ure has other implications. Differences in social background, cultural values and religious belief might make the discrepancy of foreigners and local inhabitants on some issues indelible; however, the higher interaction, the higher level of communication and understanding. Arabians, for example, used to consider westerners as their f oes. Now they have concrete relations with their western allies in many fields. In the initial stage, their divergence seemed inherent but over time, wi t h better mu tual understanding, they take the same position on many issues. Undeniably, it is likely that in some resorts, foreign visitors repel the local community with their s cant regard for the local environment and conventions when they first arrive. However, it should be noted that most offense is accidental, rather than intentional. Instead, visitors disobey rules and conventions simply because they have no knowledge of them. This situation is expected to be improved with the passing of time when visitors from different countries increase their knowledge of a local culture. According to the above analysis, we can observe that the increase in the international travel should not be taken as the cause of any conflict that arises between two countries. Alternatively, one should recogni z e its role in improving mutual understanding between two countries .
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives This exercise will give you practice in effectively using the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives. InstructionsComplete each sentence below with the appropriate comparative or superlative form of the adjective in italics. When youre done, compare your answers with those on page two. Her voice, which was always soft and melodious, was even _____ and sweeter than usual.All four boys were uncommonly lazy, but Jimbo was the _____ of them all.Of all the silly things people said toward the end of the twentieth century, perhaps the _____ came from the author who declared the end of history. Bright stars filled the night sky, but there was one star that was larger and _____ than the others.A loud voice is needed to command attention, but the _____ voice in the room seldom belongs to the most effective leader.Working in a library may not seem very interesting to most people, but Maggie believed that she had the _____ job in the world.My grandpa told a good joke, but I told a _____ one.Our final exam was difficult, far _____ than I had expected.Terry went directly to the shelf filled with cheap toys and picked out the _____ one he could find.Andrew didnt think the joke was very funny, but after Karen explained it, he laughed like it was the _____ joke he had ever heard.I made up a story about a beautiful bird that sang the _____ song ever heard. Gandalf says that the ring is dangerous, far _____ than anyone can imagine.You own many ugly sweaters, but this one has to be the _____ sweater in the world. Below (in bold) are the answers to the Exercise in Using the Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives. Her voice, which was always soft and melodious, was even softer and sweeter than usual.All four boys were uncommonly lazy, but Jimbo was the laziest of them all.Of all the silly things people said toward the end of the twentieth century, perhaps the silliest came from the author who declared the end of history.Bright stars filled the night sky, but there was one star that was larger and brighter than the others.A loud voice is needed to command attention, but the loudest voice seldom belongs to the most effective leader.Working in a library may not seem very interesting to most people, but Maggie believed that she had the most interesting job in the world.My grandpa told a good joke, but I told a better one.Our final exam was difficult, far more difficult than I had expected.Terry went directly to the shelf filled with cheap toys and picked out the cheapest one he could find.Andrew didnt think the joke was very funny, but after Karen explained it, he laughed like it was the funniest joke he had ever heard. I made up a story about a beautiful bird that sang the most beautiful song ever heard.Gandalf says that the ring is dangerous, far more dangerous than anyone can imagine.You own manyÃ uglyÃ sweaters, but this one has to be the ugliest sweater in the world.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Law,politics,and constitutional government as the distinguishing characteristics of western civilization - Essay Example This important question has been discussed for several centuries. Western Civilization has evolved from the colonial period to the present era of much more equality among nations.How have law, politics, and constitutional government contributed to this evolution?First, we must define our terms. By Ã¢â¬Å"lawÃ¢â¬ we mean the rule of law, a basic principle of Western Civilization. The concept refers to a system of well-established and clear principles and precepts which each nation follows. Laws regulate the conduct of the nation towards its own citizens as well as towards other nations and their citizens. This legal framework has also come to include international law, which governs the broader issues which arise among nations. (Gozzi, Gustavo, History of International Law and Western Civilization, April 20, 2007;.http://ssrn.com/abstract=996239) It is sometimes said that Western Civilization relies on the rule of law rather than the rule of men. Of course, men and women must still administer the laws, but the point is that the laws are to be applied fairly, uniformly, and consistently. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s station in life, wealth, family background and similar factors should not affect or influence the way one is treated under the law. This approach is a major departure from such past systems as feudalism, where serfs did not have legal rights. Similarly, the system of slavery deprived the slaves of any requirements of fair treatment from their masters; they were essentially property. 2 The rule of law has been said to have begun with the Magna Carta in England, which established limits on the absolute power of the monarchy. It required many centuries for that approach to spread to other Western nations and for it to be enforced impartially. Even today, we have not yet achieved the goal of full equal treatment under the law. The evolution of internal and international law is continuing, and remains a major contributing factor to Western Civilization. Politics must also be defined for purposes of its relationship to Western Civilization. We do not mean the political process itself so much as the concept of each citizen having a voice in his or her government, helping to elect leaders and to vote on important issues affecting each person and the nation itself. In order for this political process to occur, the voice of the people must be heard, both individually and collectively. That collective voice is usually organized into a system of political parties, each of which represents a range of viewpoints. In most cases, that range of viewpoints is considerably narrower within one party than between parties. Thus, members of one party may range from liberal to moderate in their views, while the otghe major party may range from moderate to conservative. While the views of both of these parties may meet in the middle, the range is clearly different between them. For this sort of political process to contribute to Western Civilization, it must be the ruling or guiding method of governance in the nation. Some nations have the 3 appearance or pretense of a democratic political process but not the reality. Instead, a dictator or similar official controls that nation, and the politics are merely used to make the people think that they have a real voice. Nevertheless, Western Civilization seems to be advancing towards more real political systems. Constitutional government is the result of the interaction of the rule of laws, democratic political systems, and the concept that individuals are of equa
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Empire by purchase or rental, like the acquisition of property in a Monopoly board game, remains a neglected but highly su - Research Paper Example Imperialism has existence since time immemorial taking different forms. In the ancient times, imperialism was in the form of one type of civilization or ethnicity having control of all then other around it. A good example is the Roman Empire. The earliest form of modern imperialism was in the form of colonial expansion overseas in the 14th to 19th century1. Countries in Europe were fighting over territories in Asia, the new world and Africa. The main aim of this form of imperialism was to be in control of trade and raw materials from its colonies thereby monopolizing the benefits from the transactions2. In the 19th century, there was a new form of imperialism which came with free trade. In this, countries would have control over others through diplomacy and economic agreement. Most formal empires came to an end after World War II. This did not last long but have been replaced by neocolonialism. This is the situation where the economic powerful countries such as the America have a lot of influence of third world countries. This article reviews the significance of empires, the motives behind empirial expansion and finally compares Alaska and Guantanamo. Significance of Empires Imperialism has had both positive and negative impact on the countries or people who were incorporated into the powerful states or nations depending on the form of imperialism. ... This ensured that the members of the weaker nations could now have better living standards, with reduced mortality compared to their earlier lives. However, Imperialism in the form of colonialism had several devastating impacts on the colonies. This I despite the fact that the mother countries invested in the development of these countries, their main focuses was in development of those areas related to the specific raw material that eh countries were interested in and not the others4. These developments did not therefore benefit these colonies but benefitted their master. In the end, this form of relationship ended up benefitting the mother colonies booting the development of these economies at their expense. A major significance of empires is that it results in the bringing together of people from different backgrounds. As a result, wealth from the different people and land is amassed and this creates an empire which now becomes more economically powerful5. This has been the case i n American which is made up of different states. Some of these states were bough for instance Alaska was bought from Russia. Because of this union of states and use of a common currency, America is today the most economically powerful nation in the world. Other important empires whose contribution has been significance to the world today are the British Empire which introduced the parliamentary democracy to countries around the world6. The Greek empire has had a lot of legacy in the present day society in terms of academic contribution, culture and art. The Roman Empire has also contributed to the development of the contemporary society7. Other empires whose impacts are felt today are the Muslim and Christian empire which dominates two thirds of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The War Powers Act of 1973 Essay The fundamental conflict between Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the United States Constitution gave occasion to the passing of The War Powers Act of 1973 also known as The War Powers Resolution of 1973. The former constitutional provision granted the power to declare war to Congress while the latter appointed the President of the United States to be the Commander-in-Chief of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s armed forces. The conflict occurred because the Presidents, in sending American soldiers to war in their capacity as their Commander-in-Chief, have been ignoring the provision of the constitution which vested unto Congress the Ã¢â¬Å"sole power to declare war. Ã¢â¬ This practice was believed to have started when President Truman sent American soldiers to Korea without a congressional declaration of war. The truth was, the United States Congress had not officially declared any war after World War II (Lithwick). It was observed that the U. S. Presidents believed that as long as Congress did not declare any war formally, committing American soldiers to hostilities was within their constitutional power as Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. In other words, so long as Congress could be prevented from declaring war formally, the presidents retain a virtual free hand in such cases (Centre for European Policy Studies).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After the war in Vietnam, however, the members of Congress, in an effort to assert their authority to declare war which was granted by the constitution, passed The War Powers Act of 1973 over the veto which was exercised by then President Richard Nixon. Unfortunately, the act failed to settle with finality the conflict between the President and Congress. As a matter of fact, almost all American Presidents continued to ignore Congress, including The War Powers Act of 1973, for various reasons (Rasky). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Act has three prominent sections. These are Sections 3 (which deals on Ã¢â¬Å"ConsultationÃ¢â¬ ); Section 4 (Reporting); and Section 5, which discusses Ã¢â¬Å"Congressional Action.Ã¢â¬ Section 3 specifically states that The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situation where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by theÃ circumstances, and after every such introduction shall consult regularly withÃ the Congress until United States Armed Forces are no longer engaged inÃ hostilities or have been removed from such situations (War Powers Resolution of 1973). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This provision clearly asserts the constitutional authority of Congress in the declaration of war or the commitment of American soldiers to any war or war-like activities. In other words, Congress do not only want to be consulted before the President sends any troops to hostile situations, but it should also be appraised of the situation while the troops are still in the area. Finally, the President should consult with Congress when the troops will already be withdrawn or have already been withdrawn. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Section 4, on the other hand, states that when American forces are deployed in hostilities without a war being declared, a written report should be submitted by the President within 48 hours of such deployment to both the Speaker of the House of Representatives as well as the President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate. The report should explain the reasons for the action and the Ã¢â¬Å"estimated scope and duration of the hostilities or involvement.Ã¢â¬ Aside from submitting this written report at least once every six months, the President should also answer any questions posed by Congress concerning its constitutional war-making powers (War Powers Resolution of 1973). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These provisions, unfortunately, had been cited as not only burdensome and dilatory, but also unfair, particularly Section 3, when Congress is in recess. For instance, President Gerald Ford experienced some difficulties along this line when American forces were being evacuated from DaNang sometime in 1975 and again in 1976 in Lebanon. He said that Ã¢â¬Å"When the evacuation of DaNang was forced upon us during the CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s Easter recess, not one of the key bipartisan leaders of the Congress was in Washington.Ã¢â¬ He said that because of the break, some of the key leaders were in Greece. Others were in the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China, while there were those who spent the time in Mexico, the Middle East, and Europe. He expressed disappointment with the law, calling it unfair especially since, according to him, Ã¢â¬Å"military operations seldom wait for Congress to meet,Ã¢â¬ claiming further that many critical situations around the world in fact arose when it was nighttime in Washington (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). In essence, President Ford was explaining that preparing for and/or actually going to war could be greatly hampered by all these consultations and reporting to Congress because any element of surprise or advantage of quick retaliation would be lost in the process. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Republican President Ronald Reagan had similarly experienced the dilatory effect of the War Powers Act in 1982. After deploying American Marines to Lebanon, President Reagan complied with the provision of the act by making a report about the deployment to Congress. In spite of the majority of the Republicans in the Senate, the deployment was vigorously opposed by the Democratic congressmen who were the majority in the House of Representatives at the time. In other words, the deployment was not granted Congressional authority for several months, only to be approved later the following year after a compromise was reached by the leaders of both houses of Congress, authorizing the U.S. Marines to stay in Lebanon for 18 months. What made matters worse was the observation of some quarters that the opposition to the deployment had been mainly due to partisan political reasons. President Reagan, for his part, was greatly disappointed with the compromise especially since it sought President ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s assurances on what the Marines were not supposed to do, thereby tying down their hands and reducing their effectiveness (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). According to observers, the delay in the authorization and the challenges made in the House of Representatives had the effect of weakening the negotiating position of President Reagan not only with Syria but also with the warring political groups found in Lebanon. As a result, the Department of StateÃ¢â¬â¢s Director of the Policy Planning Staff, Peter W. Rodman, said that the presence of the Marines in Lebanon was stripped of its deterrent impact. Specifically, Rodman explained that what happened in Congress Ã¢â¬Å"convinced the Syrians that the United States was Ã¢â¬Ëshort of breathÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¦, thus undermining the delicate diplomatic efforts Ã¢â¬ ¦that sought a negotiated solutionÃ¢â¬ By March 6, 1984, Senator Howard Baker, the Majority Leader, was already questioning the appropriateness and the relevance of the War Powers Act as an interactive tool between the two branches of government. He voiced the opinion that the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s military involvement in other countries could not always start off Ã¢â¬Å"with a prolonged tedious and divisive negotiation between the executive and the legislative branches of Government [because] The world and its many challenges to [American] interests simply do not allow [such] luxuryÃ¢â¬ Ã (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). Records would later show that that Lebanese episode was the first and only incident where Congress was able to invoke the War Powers Act. Nevertheless, a compromise subsequently produced the required congressional authority and effectively aborted what could have been a genuine face-off between the two branches of government (Rasky). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Section 5, which provides for the necessary congressional action, is the third important section of the Act. Subsection (a) of this section provides that when Congress is not in session for at least three days when the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s report is being transmitted to Congress, the President could be requested jointly by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representative to convene Congress for the sole purpose of considering the report and taking any appropriate action where necessary. Obviously, this provision should be interpreted as proof of CongressÃ¢â¬â¢s intention of giving due priority to the problem. Subsection (b), on the other hand, requires the President to withdraw the American forces from the area of hostilities sixty days from the filing of the report to Congress unless: Congress has either officially declared war or has issued its authorization for the continued use of the American forces; has granted a statutory extension after the sixty-day period has lapsed; or fails to convene for the purpose of acting on the matter resulting from any armed attack from hostile parties. This section likewise specifies that in a case where an extension to the sixty-day period is requested by the President for any valid reason, Congress is only empowered to grant an additional 30 days to effect the safe withdrawal of the American forces. Finally, subsection (c) specifically provides that Ã¢â¬Å"at any time that United States Armed Forces are engaged in hostilities outside the territory of the United States, its possessions and territories without a declaration of war or specific statutory authorization, such forces shall be removed by the President if the Congress so directs by concurrent resolutionÃ¢â¬ (War Powers Resolution of 1973). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã According to this subsection, a concurrent resolution by the House of Representatives and the Senate could compel the President to immediately withdraw American forces from undeclared wars. This, however, has been deemed unconstitutional by some quarters, interpreting the provision as giving Ã¢â¬Å"the force of law to a concurrent resolution, which is passed by majorities in both chambers of Congress, but is not presented to the President for his consent or veto.Ã¢â¬ They have cited Article I, Section 7, Clause 3 of the Constitution which provides that Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds vote of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the case of a Bill (HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR). Works Cited Lithwick, Dahlia. Ã¢â¬Å"What War Powers Does the President Have?Ã¢â¬ 15 January 2008. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.slate.com/id/1008290 Centre For European Policy Studies. Ã¢â¬Å"On a European War Powers Act.Ã¢â¬ 19 February 2007. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 15 January 2008. http://ceps01.link.be/Article.php?=article_id=80 Ã¢â¬Å"HOW AMERICA GOES TO WAR.Ã¢â¬ The Progressive Conservative. Ed. Alman Leroy Way, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Jr. 10 June Ã¢â¬â 31 December 1999. 15 January 2008. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.geocities.com/way_leroy/ProConVolTwoIssueOnePage5.html Rasky, Susan F. Ã¢â¬Å"War Powers Act: Years of Conflict Over Constitutionality.Ã¢â¬ New York Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Times online. 19 April 1988. 15 January 2008. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://ceps01.link.be/Article.php?=article_id=80 Ã¢â¬Å"War Powers Resolution of 1973.Ã¢â¬ Almanac of Policy Issues. 7 November 1973. 15 January http://www.policyalmanac.org/world/archive/war_powers_resolution.shtml
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Slovenia 1945 is a well-crafted blend of personal memories, historiography, and eyewitness accounts. The result is moving narrative that avoids the turgidity and dryness historical studies may fall prey to, as well as the indulgent emotionalism of some memoirs. The starting point for the volume was the letters written by John Corsellis, a conscientious objector working in the Friends Ambulance Unit in Austrian Carinthia from 1945 to 1947. This material was fleshed out with several dozen interviews, a diary by camp survivor France Perni?ek, and the journalist Marcus Ferrar. Although Corsellis is a central participant in the story, his presence in the book is subtle and unobtrusive. Structurally, the book is attractive to both casual readers and serious researchers. In addition to the main text, there are fifteen photos, three maps, an outline of the chief characters, a four-page catalogue of other persons, a tightly packed six-page bibliography, and a five-page index of people, subjects, and places. A striking feature of the book is its impartiality?a goal that the authors explicitly state in the prologue (p. 2). Negative sides of all participants are depicted: Germans (slave labor, attacks on civilians, book burning), Italians (the Rab concentration camp, the myth of kind and romantic soldiers), Partisans (theft, murder, rape), Catholics (the Black Hand death squads), the western Allies (shooting at civilians, looting), and the Village Guards (burning prisoners to death). However, the book is much more than a catalogue of crimes; it also relates the human sides of all involved: individual acts of kindness by combatants and civilians on all sides. The narrative is replete with religious imagery?priests, ... ...jana: Modrian. Markovski, Venko. 1984. Goli Otok: The Island of Death. Boulder: Social Science Monographs. Mila?, Metod. 2002. Resistance, Imprisonment & Forced Labor. A Slovene Student in World War II [= Studies in Modern European History 47]. New York: Peter Lang. Reindl, Donald F. 2001. Mass Graves from the Communist Past Haunt Slovenia?s Present, RFE/RL Newsline 5.225 (29 November), available at http://www.rferl.org/ newsline/2001/11/5-not/not- 291101.asp Sirc, Ljubo. 1989. Between Hitler and Tito: Nazi Occupation and Communist Oppression. London: Andre Deutsch. Tolstoy, Nikolai. 1986. The Minister and the Massacres. London: Century Hutchinson. John Corsellis & Marcus Ferrar. Slovenia 1945: Memories of Death and Survival after World War II. London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 2005. xi + 276 pp., Ã¯ ¿ ½24.50 ($47.97) (cloth). ISBN: 1-85043-840-0.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Organization change occurs due to various reasons that the management sets up in order to improve its performance. Management change requires thoughtful planning from the management and also sensitive implementation of the changes. The management also has to consult and involve the people who are going to be affected by the implementation of those changes. If people are forced to accept the change then they will be big problems. The change to be implemented should be real, achievable and more so measurable. These issues are particularly relevant in dealing with personal change. For organization change, before starting to implement it you should know what you want to achieve, why you want that change, and how you will measure the change. Organizational change is much related to personal change as it requires the personnel to implement it. Change is an organization is something certain so that the organization can catch up with new technologies and challenges that arise with time. A good example is International Business Machines (IBM) which was faced with hyper competition from its competitors which lead to reduction of its market share and low revenue. Though, change is a risky business for an organization as research shows that over 70% of new changes effected in companies fail, it is vital. So, why did IBM have to under go organizational changes yet is that risky? It changed it organizational operations because of the external pressure and demands. Thus, the company had to review its strategic decisions in order to create new plans and goals that can be implemented to achieve these new goals. To effect these changes IBM choose the directorÃ image of change as their tool of implementing these changes. Why director, because the image allows the managers to lead through the proposed changes by going step by step, through the cycles of recommended changes, together with the personnel that is involved. For example, diagnosis of the changes, unfreezing and implementing the changes. In addition this image of change gives the managers high control in designing the process of changes and also on implementing them, this ensures that the managers are in charge of the activities and are able to ensure that the process are well followed and maintained. This ensures that the proposed changes are effectively implemented. The other advantage of this image of change is that, it views results from the proposed changes as certainly achievable and thus does not leave room for doubts. In order to remain competitive on the market IBM had to implement some business development changes in the organization. By making changes in the business development section, the most important aspect that IBM considered was quality. IBM identified particular new business development goals and then had to formulate a business plan that included the following ways of development; development in sales, development of new products, creation of new markets, structural and also processes development change for example e- business, making new strategic partnerships together with development of distributions channels, and initiating international development. Another thing IBM did looking for acquisitions of small companies. All this internal changes were geared towards recapturing the markets and increasing sales. The business development changes implemented by IBM resulted in increase in revenue as their sales increased and they were able to capture new markets. IBM also was able to improve the quality of its products to international standards, at the same time it injected new products that were in line with new trends on the markets. Other images management change that the organization can use are Navigator and caretaker. In navigator image, the manager has to identify various change options available and take one. Unlike in the director here the managers have limited control in implementing the proposed changes. Although, the management views that they will achieve the goals of the proposed change, they also view that other problems may arise. While in caretaker image, the management makes change by forwarding it to the very end, and has little control on the processes of designing change and implementing it. The management views change as achievable, however, cannot manipulate the way change occurs. I think the best way of implementing change is using the director image as it gives control to the management which is an important aspect in planning and implementing change in organization. Thus, I will recommend IBM to continue using it. Conclusion In this fast moving business environment it has become increasingly necessary for organization to embrace change especially in its technology and marketing strategies, in order to maintain competitive edge. Competition and demand in high quality products has made business environments to be very dynamic in that it requires dynamic organization and systems to offer effective responses to these dynamic business environments by implementing planning and implementing successfully changes. As in the case of IBM, the management must chose the image of management change that will give best result and use it. If well implemented results will be always be good.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Barbara Ehrenreich is a writer and journalist who decided to conduct an experiment and find out for herself what it is like to live on the minimum wage. For one month at a time she entered various communities, taking on minimum wage positions and trying to stay ahead. Ehrenreich detailed her experience in the book Nickel and Dimed. This books offers insight into the real lives and struggles of these people, showing just how difficult life is for them. As well as this, it is a striking account of how the lower class are treated by their employers and by people in general. The first thing that was immediately noticeable in the book was just how hard it was for people on the minimum wage just to achieve the basics of having food and shelter. Ehrenreich started the experiment in Key West and was not planning to live an extravagant life at all. Her plan was to find a job that would pay $7 an hour and a place to rent at a low enough price that she could afford food and gas. Ehrenreich's plan is to live in a trailer home. However, she soon finds that even a trailer home comes at a rent that is too high. Ehrenreich describes this realization saying that Ã¢â¬Å"it is a shock to realize that Ã¢â¬Ëtrailer trash' has become, for me, a demographic category to aspire toÃ¢â¬ (Ehrenreich p. 12). This was surprising and shocking to read and changed my opinion about conditions for people on the minimum wage. I had considered that people living in trailer homes were struggling, but had never considered that they were struggling to the extent that just affording a trailer home would be so difficult. I also assumed that people living on minimum wage would be able to at least afford basic items such as food and shelter, even if they were not able to afford luxuries. This immediately opened my eyes to just how much people struggle just to get the basic essentials. This same problem is revealed again later in the book where Ehrenreich experiences the same thing in different towns. At one point, she is working two jobs and working seven days a week. Even then, she is only just able to supply herself with the basics. Ehrenreich also offers an opinion on the housing problem where she states that the high rent is a problem in all places Ã¢â¬Å"where tourists and the wealthy compete for living space with the people who clean their toilets and fry their foodÃ¢â¬ (Ehrenreich 12). This suggests that the minimum wage earners are pushed out of decent accommodation by the people who are better off. The higher wage earners can afford higher rent and so rents go as high as these people can afford. Ehrenreich's reference to the wealthy though, doesn't seem to refer to those that would typically be considered wealthy. Instead, the wealthy are labeled from the point of view of someone who is on minimum wage. The wealthy then are really the skilled workers who are by no means rich, but are rich enough to afford to live reasonably well and at least manage to meet their basic needs and achieve a basic living standard. This strongly suggests that there is a major problem in society, since it seems absurd to think that you have to be wealthy just to have enough to have a decent place to live and be able to eat. This is a basic right that every person should have and it seems wrong that it is not available to everyone. It seems especially wrong that it is not available to a person working as hard and as many hours as Ehrenreich does. Ehrenreich also provides further analysis of the problem. As she sees it, there is a supply and demand issue at the heart of the problem. Workers need to work, but there are more workers then there are jobs. This gives employers the ability to keep wages current and still have those jobs filled. In fact, this just created more demand for jobs because workers will be looking for two or three jobs. In this situation, there is no need for employers to increase wages so they do not. This results in the wages being fixed. At the same time, there is demand for rental properties, food, and all the other essentials. This demand is not driven by the people on minimum wage, but by the population overall. While the people on minimum wage may not ever be moving forward, the economy overall and the population overall is always moving forward. This means that the cost of everything is always increasing, which includes the cost of food and the cost of rent. The question this raises is how people on minimum wage are ever supposed to catch up. How can they save anything to better themselves or improve their situation if every cent they earn is spent just trying to live? And if they cannot move ahead but everything else keeps moving ahead, what other option is there but for the people to fall further and further behind? This suggests that the conditions will continue to worsen. People on minimum wage will have to work more jobs and longer hours and will be able to do less and less with that money. In the book, Ehrenreich shows that she came very close to having to live in a shelter. It seems that life will only become harder and this downhill spiral may be the only direction that life can go for people on the bottom levels. Another important point in the book relates to how Ehrenreich is treated. From her first attempts to get a job, there is always the sense that she is being looked down upon by others. The job application processes seem uncaring at best and often humiliating. The working conditions seem just as bad. And for the customers that she serves in her roles, it seems like she is treated as barely human. The only real kindness or consideration she receives is from people in the same position as her. For employers and the public, she is either not noticed at all or seen as inferior and not deserving better treatment. For the public, I think this is something that happens naturally, rather than something is done out of cruelty. As long as someone is in a job and performing a job task, they tend to be though of as existing to perform that task. This applies to all positions, whether it be minimum wage or not. For example, it is natural to think of doctors and dentists in terms of the jobs they perform and not to consider them as people. For this point then, I don't think that the book shows a special disregard for minimum wage earners. Instead, it is more like there is just a lack of awareness about these people. In the end though, I don't think it is up to the public to show regard for minimum wage earners or any other type of worker. Instead, it should be up to the employer to treat all employees fairly. As noted though, there is no requirement for companies to do so. And the companies are always thinking of employees as a cost and not considering their personal needs. What can be done about the problem them? Ehrenreich does not provide an answer and there is no clear solution. However, just noticing that there is a problem to be solved is a good start. The book also shows power issues between employers and employers. Ehrenreich suggests that employers are keen to maintain their power over employees, including making it clear that employees should not join unions. During the interview process, Ehrenreich has to answer questions about whether she has children that would interfere with her ability to get to work and whether she thinks safety is the responsibility of management. Ehrenreich also describes trick questions asking about things like the amount of stolen goods purchased per year and the attitude on drugs. It seems clear that the interview process is created with the belief that the person will be a problematic employee. They might injure themselves and expect management to care. They might be late for work because of their children. They might be on drugs or steal from the company. The situation does not get any better when Ehrenreich gets a job, with her boss then constantly watching her for signs of drug abuse, stealing, or any other form of rule breaking. The situation that Ehrenreich describes is one where the employer has complete power. Despite all the laws on equal opportunity, it seems that employers can discriminate and choose not to employ someone who has children. Despite the law protecting the safety of workers, it seems that employers can ignore their duty of protecting employees. Overall, it seems that employees have no rights at all and no power at all. The companies can make demands and the employee's situation gives them no choice but to accept the demands. The power issues also seem to be increased by the view that the employers have of the employees. They seem to expect employees to be drug abusers, to be likely to steal, and to be barely intelligent or capable enough to perform basic duties. It is this attitude that has minimum wage earners like Ehrenreich being looked down on and treated with no respect. As Ehrenreich notes several times, minimum wage earners are seen as nothing more than people who have no choice but to do the jobs that are above everyone else. What can be done about this problem? Ehrenreich does not provide any answers to this questions. However, what she does do is make it clear that there is a very real problem. After reading the book, the daily battle of minimum wage earners becomes disturbingly clear. It is even more concerning when is it considered that Ehrenreich has trouble surviving as a minimum wage earner even though she has a lot more going for her than most, including that she only has herself to support. If Ehrenreich can't do it, it seems clear that nobody can. The end result of the book is the realization that there is a major problem in society that needs to be fixed. This is what the makes the book powerful, with Ehrenreich's account of her struggle able to open people's eyes to the world that they either couldn't see or didn't want to see.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Drunken walk Essay Example Drunken walk Paper Drunken walk Paper Ã¢â¬Å"The Drunkards Walk: How Randomness Rules Our LivesÃ¢â¬ by Leonard Mlodinow was appreciated as one of the best book in 2009. People say this book can change the way of thinking and looking at things forever. The main idea of the book is the significance of the chance and its influence on the life. The author gives his reader the fresh insight on the political votes, different ratings, the rises and falls of celebrities, and related this with the common things in the life, from the morning conversation to the financial setback. The book could be even considered as scholar source but the brilliant writing style and the sparkling humor made it the bestseller. Ã¢â¬Å"The Drunkard WalkÃ¢â¬ Generally, the idea of Mlodinow isnÃ¢â¬â¢t new: the author proves it citing the book of the 16th century author Gerolamo Cardano. The book Ã¢â¬Å"Book on Games of ChanceÃ¢â¬ describes the importance of Fortune, and Mlodinow just develops the idea. Probably the most valuable feature of this book is the feeling of control that the reader can obtain after finishing reading. The experiments proved that the person, who is in control on his or her environment, can live longer Ã¢â¬â even if the control is less that this person thinks. However, the author warns his reader from overestimation of the control. He describes the story of a Paramount studio executive, Sherry Lansing. She was the head of the studio in the times of its successful blockbusters, like Ã¢â¬Å"TitanicÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Forrest GumpÃ¢â¬ . Suddenly the streak of a good luck finished, the studio released some unsuccessful movies and Sherry Lansing was fired. After her discharge Paramount had the best summer in a decade. From the cause-effect relationship point of view the relation is obvious: Lansing was discharged, the success retuned to Paramount, ergo, her discharge was justified. However, the author remains us that the movie production is rather long process, and the most successful films like Ã¢â¬Å"War of the WorldsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Longest YardÃ¢â¬ were already in production in the moment of Lansing discharge. Thus, Lansing was sure she controlled the situation, and her management was sure she was the reason of slowdown. The story proves they both were mistaken. Mlodonow warns his reader against the hasty conclusions, especially based on the Ã¢â¬Å"statisticsÃ¢â¬ . The problem is people usually undervalue the importance of the perception. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦in all aspects of our lives we encounter streaks and other peculiar patterns of success and failure. Sometimes success predominates, sometimes failure. Either way it is important in our own lives to take the long view and understand that streaks and other patterns that donÃ¢â¬â¢t appear random can indeed happen by pure chance. It is also important, when assessing others, to recognize that among a large group of people it would be very odd if one of them didnÃ¢â¬â¢t experience a long streak of successes or failures. (Mlodinow, 2009)Ã¢â¬ Our perception have the impact on our decisions, and Ã¢â¬Å"human perception, Faraday recognized, is not a direct consequence of reality but rather an act of imagination. (Mlodonow, 2009)Ã¢â¬ Besides, Mlodinow explains the laws of math statistics, making his reader understand that 50-50 probability is almost the pure abstraction, which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist in reality due to randomness. However, his conclusions are rather optimistic. It is impossible to predict the outcome of a single coin toss or a given trade, but it us real to describe the results of a series using the laws of statistics and probability. Conclusion The book of Mlodinow is a mix of authorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion about the randomness and the historical narratives on statistics. The author concludes that though the randomness is everywhere, it is almost impossible to manage it. The only way to manage the randomness is to create it, but it also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee the success. However, the understanding of basic math statistics laws together with the feeling of confidence makes the book worth reading. References Mlodinow, L. (2009) Ã¢â¬Å"The Drunkards Walk: How Randomness Rules Our LivesÃ¢â¬ . Vintage Books. ISBN: 0307275175.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
A Guide to Shanghainese Since Shanghai is in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), the official language of the city is standard Mandarin Chinese, also known asÃ Putonghua. However, the traditional language of the Shanghai region is Shanghainese, which is a dialect of Wu Chinese which is not mutually intelligible with Mandarin Chinese. Shanghainese is spoken by about 14 million people. It has retained its cultural significance for the Shanghai region, despite the introduction of Mandarin Chinese as the official language in 1949. For many years, Shanghainese was banned from primary and secondary schools, with the result that many young residents of Shanghai do not speak the language. Recently, however, there has been a movement to protect the language and to reintroduce it into the education system. Shanghai Shanghai is the largest city in the PRC, with a population of more than 24 million people. It is a major cultural and financial center and an important port for container shipments. The Chinese characters for this city are Ã¤ ¸Å Ã¦ µ ·, which is pronounced ShnghÃÅ½i. The first character Ã¤ ¸Å (shng) means on, and the second character Ã¦ µ · (hÃÅ½i) means ocean. The name Ã¤ ¸Å Ã¦ µ · (ShnghÃÅ½i) adequately describes the location of this city, since it is a port city on the mouth of the Yangtze River by the East China Sea. Mandarin vs Shanghainese Mandarin and Shanghainese are distinct languages which are mutually unintelligible. For example, there are 5 tones in Shanghainese versus only 4 tones in Mandarin. Voiced initials are used in Shanghainese, but not in Mandarin. Also, changing tones affects both words and phrases in Shanghainese, while it only affects words in Mandarin. Writing Chinese characters are used to write Shanghainese. The written language is one of the most important factors in unifying the various Chinese cultures, since it can be read by most Chinese, regardless of their spoken language or dialect. The primary exception to this is the split between traditional and simplified Chinese characters. Simplified Chinese characters were introduced by the PRC in the 1950s, and can differ greatly from the traditional Chinese characters still used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and many overseas Chinese communities. Shanghai, as part of the PRC, uses simplified characters. Sometimes Chinese characters are used for their Mandarin sounds to write Shanghainese. This type of Shanghainese writing is seen on Internet blog posts and chat rooms as well as in some Shanghainese textbooks. Decline of Shanghainese From the early 1990s, the PRC banned Shanghainese from the education system, with the result that many of the young residents of Shanghai no longer speak the language fluently. Because the younger generation of Shanghai residents has been educated in Mandarin Chinese, the Shanghainese they speak is often mixed with Mandarin words and expressions. This type of Shanghainese is quite different from the language that older generations speak, which has created fears that real Shanghainese is a dying language. Modern Shanghainese In recent years, a movement has started to try to preserve the Shanghai language by promoting its cultural roots. The Shanghai government is sponsoring educational programs, and there is a movement to reintroduce Shanghainese language learning from kindergarten through to university. Interest in preserving Shanghainese is strong, and many young people, even though they speak a mixture of Mandarin and Shanghainese, see Shanghainese as a badge of distinction. Shanghai, as one of the most important cities of the PRC, has important cultural and financial ties with the rest of the world. The city is using those ties to promote Shanghai culture and the Shanghainese language.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Quantitative Methods for Accountants - Math Problem Example Negative shadow price for contract obligation (-'3) indicates that each additional unit of product A to be produced according to the contract provision will have 3-equivalent negative influence on the value of the objective function. Reduction of the amount of product A to be produced and sold will have the opposite effect. Selling price - (Labour time required * shadow price for Labour time - Machine time required * shadow price for Machine time - Raw material required * shadow price for Raw material - Changes in contract amount* shadow price for contract) = .. Shadow price for raw materials (4) indicates that each additional unit of raw material bought or used will have '4-equivalent positive (negative correspondingly) effect on the objective function. Negative shadow price for contract obligation (-'3) indicates that each additional unit of product A to be produced according to the contract provision will have 3-equivalent negative influence on the value of the objective function. Reduction of the amount of product A to be produced and sold will have the opposite effect. d) The impact of producing Product D on the total contribution to profit can be calculated as indicated: Selling price - (Labour time required * shadow price for Labour time - Machine time required * shadow price for Machine time - Raw material required * shadow price for Raw material - Changes in contract amount* shadow price for contract) == '55 - ' (6*0 + 6*0 + 3*4 - 0*(-3)) = ' 55 - ' 12 = ' 43 As the calculated value is positive and quite significant the company also should produce product
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Global Strategic Management - Assignment Example The latter entails using similar and confusing trademarks or service marks on a similar, not fake, product or service. Counterfeit goods are sold around the world. However, the vice is more prevalent in developing countries where it is relatively cheaper to produce a product (Sullivan & Chermak, 2013). For instance, Taiwan and China in Asia are exceptionally prone to counterfeiting. The practice is also found in developed economies, albeit to a lesser degree. Counterfeiting is not only illegal, but also unethical. It is unethical because it involves profiting from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s sweat, so to speak. The producers of counterfeit goods are not prepared to introduce their brands and grow them. Instead, they cut corners and try to profit from established brands behind the backs of their owners. The world over, business organizations adopt a variety of measures to address counterfeiting. These can be business, legal or technological. An example of a legal measure is an organization registering their trademarks. Today, it is common for large multinational corporations to have the various components of their manufactured in different jurisdictions then ship them to the assembly plant. Usually, this mode of operation is designed to take advantage of the advantages that various jurisdictions have to offer. For example, a manufacturer of smartphones located in Singapore may have their battery manufacturing plant situated in Finland. Under these circumstances, the smartphone manufacturer will do well to have all their trademarks registered in all the jurisdictions where parts of the smartphone are made. This is in addition to registering those trademarks in all the countries where the finished phones are sold. Some of the business measures that organizations take to combat counterfeiting include creating and maintaining an anti-counterfeiting department (Spink & Fejes, 2012). The key role of the department to initiate and implement measures to prevent the
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Week 5 - Assignment Example The Learning Team had found that the initial ethics program that had been implemented by the company for over a year had lacked major factors that are needed for the proper upbringing of the ethics practiced within the company. The previous ethics program did not take into consideration the checking up on the rest of the staff that were working under the supervisors and managers. Studies have shown that training classes that are aimed at all of the employees in a company are the best teachers with regard to ethical behavior and meeting the expectations of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s top officers (Hadden, 2009). Proper enforcement of the company policies are also in need of improvement as a number of employees take for granted the lack of discipline that is given to them by the managers and supervisors. Seeing the changes that need to be made in order to improve the company, the Learning Team suggests the following in order to address the needed changes in the Ethics program within the company: gaining proper feedbacks from company employees and ethical training for employees. In order to address to the training for the employees at hand, studies have shown that a role playing type of company training would help employees interact more with one another and build rapport with one another. Proper ethics training would prove to create a good amount of accountability and would result to an environment that workers would make the right decisions in terms of ethics and thus include the maintenance of a highly productive work environment for them to stay in (Hadden, 2009). In order to get results on the implementation of the new set of company policies on the employees, rewarding systems are one way of catching the attention of the employee but instead of the reward, per se, attracting the employee, the work that comes from the reward would be something they would strive for more.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
On First Looking Into Chapmans Homer John Keats On First Looking into Chapmans Homer is a sonnet in which he writes of the impact of reading Chapmans translation of Homer. Reading Chapmans Homer did more than spark Keats intellect. Chapmans Homer caused a massive explosion in Keats mind which allowed him to write as John Middleton Murray says one of the finest sonnets in the English language (Murray). In this paper I will show that Keats writes the poem On First Looking into Chapmans Homer after he had an epiphany as a result of reading Chapmans translation of Homer. George Chapman was an English poet, dramatist, and translator during the Renaissance. He is most remembered as the poet who translated the works of Homer. He was born in Hitchin around 1559. Chapman died in poverty in 1634, but left a wealthy estate of writing for all to inherit. John Keats, born in 1795, was an English Poet. He published three books of poetry. Keats lost both parents at a very young age. Keats was not born into aristocracy, he was not rich, and therefore was not very well educated. Most critics did not consider Keats to be credible poet. Because he was poor he could not marry the woman he loved and only achieved fame after his death in 1821. Andrew Motion of the Richmond Review writes: The story of John Keats is one of the best known lives in literary history. His working class origins, poor critical reception and tragically early death constitute a perfect blueprint for a popular archetype of the Romantic Poet (Motion). The poem On Looking into Chapmans Homer was written after Keats and his friend Charles Cowden Clarke was given a copy of Chapmans Homer. Michael R. Richards states: Keatss sonnet is a criticism in miniature, a capsulated criticism very much in tune with almost all the Romantic critics (Richards). Evidently, Keats used the poem as a vehicle to reveal the hidden treasure of literary wealth regarding Homer and his literary works that was not mimed by Pope. Keats uses the Italian (Sonnet) or Petrarchan form of the sonnet to structure his poem. The octet, which is the first eight lines of the poem, carries an abba abba rhyme scheme. The next six lines of the poem, the sestet, have a rhyme scheme of cdcdcd. As expected, line 9 of the poem introduces a change in the poem, formally known as a Volta, commonly called a turn. In the octet, Keats speaks of travels he experienced vicariously through his reading. Keats vivid imagination allows him to enter into the pages of the books and the words were as sparks causing his intellect to catch fire. In concert with the theme of Petrarchan sonnets, Keats uses the octet to introduce the problem when he writes: Oft of one wide expanse had I been told / That deep-browd Homer ruled as his demesne / Yet did I never breathe its pure serene / Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold. (5-8) First, it is fitting to look at the words used in the poem. Keats uses language that depicts expansive travel, major discovery, and an enriching sense of satisfaction. Using words like much, states, kingdoms, many, and islands, he successfully communicates that his travel was plentiful and varied. Next, he intimates discovery by alluding to astrologers finding new planets, and the imagery of Cortez first seeing the Pacific Ocean. Keats encapsulates the fact that he had heard of Homer and the euphoria of the vast impact of the newly acquired insight by declaring: Yet did I never breathe its pure serene / Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold / Then felt I like some watcher of the skies / when a new planet swims into his ken/ or like Stout Cortez when with eagle eyes / he stard at the Pacific. (6-11) Keats reading experiences in general, and more his specifically, reading of Chapmans Homer was so prolific, that he could only describe it in the sestet with metaphors and similes that bespeak grandeur of expanse, height and depth. The overarching metaphor is reading presented as travel. Hiliary S. Brautigam, in her essay, Controlled Passion writes: Keats dramatically establishes the narrative with the arresting first line, drawing the reader into the overarching metaphor that encompasses the poem (Bressler). A surface reading of the poem misleads the reader into believing that Keats is a man who has travelled to many places. Keats writes: Much have I travelld in the realms of gold / And many goodly states and kingdoms seen. / Round many western islands have been / Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold. (1-4) A closer inspection of the poem reveals that the word much quantifies travel that was done figuratively and not literally. So in this instance there is a twist of irony and there is also the masterful use of binary opposition whereby much is less in terms of Keats actual travel, but it is volumes in terms of travel through reading. The same mastery holds true for the concept of travel. As defined by Dictionary.Com to travel is: to move or go from one place or point to another(Dictionary.com). Denotatively, the word travel means moving between physical spaces; however, in Keats case, travel is not between physical spaces, but is over miles on mental projection. While Keats hero, Homer, though blind, travelled extensively, the vast majority of Keats travel was in the space of his reading. The further use of simile and metaphor makes an excellent segue for Keats use of imagery. Keats writes: Then felt I like some watcher of the skies / When a new planet swims into his ken / Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes / He stard at the Pacific and all his men (9-12). The simile watcher of the skies speaks of people who studied the science of astronomy. In the historical context, watchers of the skies or, astrologers are people who studied the skies. According to Chris Lawton, From around 3000 BC onwards, astronomy in its most primitive form had developed (Lawton). In the religious context, watchers of the skies were called Egyptian Magi, wise men, who were able to look at the skies and gain the knowledge and wisdom to predict events. The religious value of Magi can be found throughout the Holy Bible. For example, Matthew, in Matthew 2:1, 7 writes: Now when Jesus was born Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem Then Herod Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared (Matthew). Thus, Keats pronouncement that he felt like a watcher of the skies strongly implies the degree of wonder and amazement he felt when reading Chapmans translation of Homer. It was, for Keats, as though he became aware of a celestial event. Interestingly, the title of the poem On First Looking into Chapmans Homer the emphasis on Chapmans Homer alludes to the fact that Keats was aware of the interpretation of Homer as translated by the English Poet, Alexander Pope. Michael Richards writes: Keats had been previously acquainted with Homer, only through Popes translations, translations that Keats found artificial (Richards). Further, Richards claims: The Romantics criticisms of Pope and Chapman agreed with Keats in that it condemns the flaccidity, the polluted poetic diction, and the artificiality of Popes translation and praised the strength, purity, and originality of Chapmans (Richards). Until Keats read the translation by George Chapman, there was no awakening in him. Furthermore, the use of the word looking in the title employs irony and imagery masterfully. According to Dictionary.Com: look may be defined as: to investigate; to see (Dictionary.Com). It is fair to conclude that Keats reading and understanding of Chapmans Homer was so thorough that Keats could see by visualization the events, places, and people in Chapmans translation. In addition, the overarching themes of travel and discovery may very well be complimented by a theme of enlightenment or awakening. Through a theme of enlightenment or awakening, it may be argued that when Keats read Chapmans Homer, it was not the first time that Keats had heard of Homer; however, it was the first time that the life, legacy, and literary contributions of Homer united with the literary experiences and convictions of Keats, giving birth to a synergistic awakening which unleashed Keats creativity. Keats declaration of hearing Chapman speak out loud and bold is the climatic moment when he felt and understood the power of Chapmans translation. Keats believes that Chapman illuminated Homer better than any other poet. The Sestet of the poem shows an overpowering word picture. There is a picture of bewildering excitement, star-struck awe, and fulfilling silence, much like a lover anticipating a climax, then experiencing the climax, and after the climax, falling into a breathless, trance-like fulfilled silence. Keats writes: Then felt I like some watcher of the skies / When a new planet swims into his ken; / Or like stout Cortez when with eagle eyes / He stard at the Pacificand all his men Lookd at each other with a wild surmise / Silent, upon a peak in Darien. (9-14) As is expected of Italian Sonnets, there is a clear denouement in the sestet. The depictions of Cortez as stout and eagle-eyed are additional and effective uses of simile and metaphor that enhances the imagery. The word stout commonly evokes physical images of being hefty, round, bulky or fat. But, coupled with the expression eagle-eye, it most likely identifies with this interpretation as defined by Dictionary.Com: having endurance or staying power (Dictionary.com). It is a widely known fact that the vision of eagles is superior to that of humans. While lauding the superior vision of Cortez to identify the Pacific Ocean, Keats also shows the precision with which he scoured Chapmans interpretation. Thus, by combining stout with eagle-eye, the poem highlights the strength, stamina and precision of not only Cortez but also that of Keats. The allusions to strength and stamina bolsters Keats strong use of metaphors, simile, and imagery. The strength of these literary elements is testament to Keats belief that Chapmans Homer is superior to that of Popes. In the poe m, Keats atttributes the discovery of the Pacific Ocean to Cortez and not Balboa. It is not clear whether Keatss attribution was as a result of a careless scholastic approach, or, whether the attribution was as a result of the deliberate use of poetic conceit which is using extended metaphors to create an image. What is crystal clear though, is the fact that with diction, imagery, the use metaphor and simile, and the application of binary oppositions and irony, Keats allows the reader to envision how he felt when the life and works of Homer as offered by Chapman touched his pysche. The impact of Chapmans Homer complimented Keats historical, social and political perspectives. In October 1816 during the Romanic Era Keats penned On First Looking into Chapmans Homer. As was fitting during the Romantic Era, Keats glorified Homer in the poem. Of course, in the neoclassic era, Homers individual heroism would be frowned upon, since neoclassics preferred people who conformed to social norms. Like Homer, Keats elevates the art of using metaphors. Again, Like Homer, Keats also combines the art of using simile and metaphor to bring to life a literary work that might otherwise be mundane. Here is a comparison of how Homer and Keats combined similes and metaphors. Homer writes: The two immortals stepped briskly as wild doves, quivering, keen to defend the fighting men of Argos. (Fagles) Keats writes: Then felt I like some watcher of the skies / When a new planet swims into his ken (9-10). It is evident that Keats discovered the value of Homers use of metaphors and immediately made use of this powerful literary tool. In summation, I submit that Keats ability as a poet and his understanding of the purpose and elements of Poetry, in particular, imagery, simile and metaphors were awakened by Chapman because Chapman captured the essence of using similes, metaphors, and imagery and gave life to writing about Homer. Apparently, after observing Chapmans use of metaphor and gaining a deeper understanding of the power of the use of metaphor and simile, Keats appreciation for them as literary elements grew. Based on his newfound understanding, it is possible to assert that Keats view of Homer, as seen through the scope of Popes translation appeared tumultuous. However, Chapmans translation depicted a much clearer view of a man whose territory is serene. Chapmans translation was the catalyst for Keats climatic epiphany. Keats was able to clearly articulate how he felt before reading Chapmans Homer and how he felt after reading Chapmans Homer. The excitement felt by Keats as he discovered new truths about Ho mer and his work, is one that is shared and should be shared by any person seeking higher learner. John Keats so brilliantly and effectively conveyed the emotions he felt as he uncovered the dynamics of Homer that readers of the poem are drawn into the excitement of travel and discovery metaphorically. The imagery of Keats first as a poet who is reading for knowledge, then as an astronomer gazing into new truths, and finally as a explorer realizing that he had discovered a new world of literary skill was very vivid. The impact of Keatss discovery fueled him to demonstrate the skill and document the experience. As a result future students, poets, writers, translators, interpreters, and lovers of the literary world have a good specimen of the effectiveness of imagery, simile, and metaphor. The words of Keats following below are a fitting conclusion to his discovery of power of the metaphor. Keats writes: Oft of one wide expanse had I been told / That deep-browd Homer ruled as his deme sne / Yet did I never breathe its pure serene / Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold. WORK CITED Bressler, Charles E. Literary Criticism. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2007. Dictionary.com. 10 July 2010 . Dictionary.com. 15 July 2010 . Dictionary.com. 19 July 2010 . Fagles. Think Quest .Org. 10 July 2010 . Lawton, Chris. tcp.co.uk. 5 July 2010 . Matthew.Blue Letter Bible. 8 July 2010 Motion, Andrew. Richmond Review. 27 August 2010 .
Friday, October 25, 2019
Clear Channel Communications, owner of 1,200 stations across the United States, has been undermining the values of diversity, localism, and market completion within the music industry since the media policy wars in the early 2000s. Since then, the radio industry arguably has lost a significant amount of the authenticity it once had. The only exception is college radio: the last safe haven for musical integrity. The only facet of radio not owned and controlled by a major monopoly. Recently, however, Clear Channel has gone to bed with college radio stations across the country. Although the corporate monopoly has shut out authenticity and artistic integrity from the mainstream, they still want more in order to completely wipe out independent music. The 1996 Telecommunications Act was the first major overhaul of telecom policy since the Communications Act of 1934; it covered everything from radio, television to cable TV (Garofalo, 440). The act removed the restrictions on the number of radio stations any one company could own, which accelerated the trend of a small number of companies owning the vast majority of stations. Clear Channel was a primary beneficiary. In 1995, Clear Channel owned 43 stations. By the early 2000s, it owned over 1,200 stations, which took in 20 percent of the industry revenues in 2001. In addition, Clear Channel owned over 700,000 billboards; it controlled 65 percent of the U.S. concert business; and it posted total revenues exceeding $8 billion (Garafalo, 440). Four companies controlled 90 percent of radio and revenue in the early 2000s. Serious implications for programming occurred due to the level of ownership concentration. According to Garafolo, Ã¢â¬Å"In one week, the forty top modern-rock stations ad... ...trick to profit. Clear Channel has taken major college stations to bed, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not a gentle lover. Thus, local stations must not be lured by Clear ChanelÃ¢â¬â¢s diabolical plan. Instead, the stations must look the corporate villain into their deceiving eyes, and inform them that their conglomerating ways will not be tolerated; we must preserve the last refuge of music programming and expression on the radio airwaves. Works Cited (MLA) Garofalo, Reebee. Rockin Out: Popular Music in America. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2010. 439-40. Print. Kirkpatrick, Bill. "On Radio: Strange Bedfellows." Antenna. 25 Mar. 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2012. Waits, Jennifer C. "Does Ã¢â¬ËindieÃ¢â¬â¢ Mean Independence? Freedom and Restraint in a Late 1990s US College Radio Community." The Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast and Audio Media 5.2&3 (2008): 83-96. Print.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The thought that peer exclusion is correlated with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom achievements and adjustment has been hypothesized since the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Much research and empirical evidence for such hypotheses have since been collected, and seem to agree with the premise of the correlation. Peer acceptance is the main measurement of this study. In contrast with other types of peer relationships, peer group acceptance, or rejection, is strongly connected with academic readiness and achievement. This article focuses on peer sentiments and its effect on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s adjustment. It differs from past studies in that its approach is to measure non-observable feelings about classmates, rather than only the observable interactions. The article begins by outlining past research, and developing a premise for the study from those previous studies. The main study that this research builds upon is that of a 2001 study by Eric S. Buhs and Gary W. Ladd, who also conduct this study along with Sarah L. Herald. The premise of the study, based on the 2001 study, is that once classmates express negative feelings and actions upon a peer, those feelings and actions act as a visible marker for further rejection by the larger peer group, and the rejected child as well; as a result, the rejected peers are flagged by their peers, and are left out of classroom interactions, and as a consequence, the rejected childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning is impacted ultimately leading to lower levels of achievement (Buhs, Ladd, and Herald, 2006, p. 2). The prior 2001 study found that Ã¢â¬Å"early peer rejection was negatively related to later achievement and that this association was partially mediated through peer maltreatment and declining classroom participation, respectivelyÃ¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 2). The authors developed a hypothesis that built upon their previous study. Their hypothesis was stated as, Ã¢â¬Å"it was hypothesized that prolonged peer maltreatment increases the probability that children will disengage from classrooms (or the school context) and that increasing disengagement impairs childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s achievement. Thus, it was predicted that longer rather than shorter histories of peer maltreatment, after controlling for contemporary exclusion or abuse, would mediate the link between early peer rejection and later classroom disengagementÃ¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 3). The authors further state that their purpose for conducting this study was to bridge the gap between the limitations of the previous study (it was only a one year study that attempted to predict students future outcomes) by conducting a more comprehensive longitudinal study over a six year period (kindergarten through fifth grade). Methodology The research study constructed six variables to measure the children with. They include, peer group acceptance/rejection, peer exclusion, peer abuse, classroom participation, school avoidance, and achievement. Peer group acceptance/rejection was conceptualized to mean Ã¢â¬Å"the extent to which individuals were liked/ disliked by classroom peers,Ã¢â¬ and operationalized by sociometric ratings that were collected from peers during kindergarten. One problem with this operationalization is the ability to comprehensively scale the true feelings of one peer toward another, especially during younger years. Scales, questionnaires, and observations might be too incomplete to capture the true meaning behind the dynamics of peer to peer interactions. Another issue is of how to evaluate separate peer groups. Many times classrooms encompass only a selection of developed peer groupings throughout the grade, and might be unfairly balanced toward one group. An example of groupings would be defined by the terms, Ã¢â¬Å"popular,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"punk,Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"nerds. Ã¢â¬ The research might be biased toward one group, if only because they were over represented in a class room. The variable Peer Exclusion was conceptualized as Ã¢â¬Å"the extent to which children were the target of peersÃ¢â¬â¢ nonaggressive rejecting behaviors, including behaviors such as ignoring, avoiding, or refusing to associate with them in the classroom contextÃ¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 3). The Variable Peer AbuseÃ¢â¬âthe second form of peer mistreatmentÃ¢â¬âwas conceptualized to mean Ã¢â¬Å"the extent to which children were recipients of classmateÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive and harassing behaviorsÃ¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 3). These two variables contained indicators to distinguish between chronic peer abuse, and situational peer abuse. Again, the issue that arises is the effectiveness of these measures. The interactions between childhood peers are complex, and can change daily. The variables Classroom Participation, and School Avoidance were used to measure disengagement from the classroom environment. A large issue with this is how to distinguish individuals who might be avoiding class as an outcome of separate circumstances. If poor participation and avoidance was only observed from the angle of peer interactions, then this view is biased toward the study. The study is seeking a correlation, and if outside factors arenÃ¢â¬â¢t controlled for, then they will biasly effect the results of their study. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s family life, neighborhood, economic status, innate ability, among other factors, could influence all of the variables that this study examines. The last variable, Achievement, was defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the accuracy with which children could solve progressively more advanced reading, mathematics, and spelling problems on an individualized achievement testÃ¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 4). The issue that comes to mind with this variable is the way it uses tests to gauge Ã¢â¬Å"achievementÃ¢â¬ . Some students fare better on tests than others, while some students take time to develop adequate test taking skills. Another problem is how to control for separate curriculums in different classrooms, and the quality of what is being taught. Data (From the text) Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 5 Participants The data used in this investigation were gathered from a total sample of 380 children (190 girls These children were followed longitudinally from age 5 (kindergarten) to age 11 (fifth grade31 kindergarten class rooms across 10 schools, and by the fifth-grade data collection period, children were in 162 different classrooms across 32 schools. The sample contained nearly equal proportions of families from urban, suburban, or rural midwestern communities, and the sampleÃ¢â¬â¢s ethnic composition was 17. 4% African American, 77. 1% Caucasian, 1. 6% Hispanic, and 3. 9% Ã¢â¬Å"other. Ã¢â¬ Family incomes were distributed as follows: 10. 9% of the sample reported total household incomes from $0 to $10,000, 10. 9% reported incomes from $10,000 to $20,000, 12. 6% reported incomes from $20,000 to $30,000, 12. 6% from $30,000 to $40,000, 12. 9% from $40,000 to $50,000, and 40. 3% reported incomes above $50,000. Results The study reports itÃ¢â¬â¢s results as, Ã¢â¬Å"peer group rejection is predictive of a range of chronic, negative peer behaviors that may alter both the social environment of the classroom and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptive responses within that context across the elementary school years. Ã¢â¬ (Buhs et al. , 2006, p. 11). It suggests that the facet of peer exclusion leading to reduced participation, and ultimately delayed achievements needs further study. It goes on to say that with further study, and thus more knowledge, an empirically based intervention program can be developed. Conclusion It can be argued that to have a complete understanding of the ever evolving and complex world of the social interactions in a school environment is close to impossible. The authors came into their study with a set premise, and expectations of the outcomes, and have seemed to found what they were searching for. The question becomes, how valid are the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s findings, and can they be applied in a general manner across learning environments. I believe studies that look at complex interactions between children over several years, such as this study, might have too many outside interactionary forces that could effect the data and results. Works Cited Buhs, Eric S. , Ladd, Gary W. , and Herald, Sarah L. (2006). Peer Exclusion and Victimization: Processes That Mediate the Relation Between Peer Group Rejection and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Classroom Engagement and Achievement?. journal of Educational Psychology 2006, Vol. 98, No. 1, 1Ã¢â¬â13.